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आदत्ते 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form आदत्ते 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11-7-45.

तेजस्वी तपसा दीप्तो दुर्धर्षोदरभाजनः ।
सर्वभक्ष्योऽपि युक्तात्मा नादत्ते मलमग्निवत् ।। ११-७-४५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Full of glory and made brighter by glow (in the shape of austerity), formidable and having no vessel other than his belly, the Yogī, like fire, does not imbibe any impurity (in the form of sin) even though consuming anything and everything (although he never consciously eats any impure substance).”

दत्ते is derived from the धातुः √दा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुदाञ् दाने, धातु-पाठः #३. १०)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-20 आङो दोऽनास्यविहरणे – When not used in the meaning of “to open the mouth”, the verbal root √दा (डुदाञ् दाने ३. १०) when preceded by the उपसर्गः “आङ्”, takes a आत्मनेपदम् affix (and not परस्मैपदम् by 1-3-78.) Hence only a आत्मनेपदम् affix may be used in this example.

Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “त”।

(1) दा + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) दा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) दा + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) दा + ते । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, the टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets एकारः as the replacement.

(5) दा + शप् + ते । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) दा + ते । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(7) दा + दा + ते । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(8) द + दा + ते । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(9) द + द् + ते । By 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्नाप्रत्ययः and of a reduplicated root is elided. Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: ‘ते’ is अपित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-112 to apply.

(10) दत्ते । By 8-4-55 खरि च, a झल् letter is replaced by a चर् letter when a खर् letter follows.

“आङ्” (ending ङकार: is a इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्) is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)।
आ + दत्ते = आदत्ते।


1. Where has आदत्ते been used in the गीता?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

3. Which सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: for 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः?

4. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – क्ङिति किम्? दधाति। । Please explain.

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-13 सौ च been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Take this coin.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “नाणक” for “coin.” Use the same धातु: as in the example.

Easy Questions:

1. The धातु: √दा (डुदाञ् दाने,धातु-पाठः #३. १०) has which सञ्ज्ञा?
i. घि-सञ्ज्ञा
ii. भ-सञ्ज्ञा
iii. घु-सञ्ज्ञा
iv. टि-सञ्ज्ञा

2. Which सूत्रम् used in the steps in this example belongs to the “असिद्धवत्” अधिकार:?

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