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विदधातु 3As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form विदधातु 3As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3-13-17.

सृजतो मे क्षितिर्वार्भिः प्लाव्यमाना रसां गता ।
अथात्र किमनुष्ठेयमस्माभिः सर्गयोजितैः ।
यस्याहं हृदयादासं स ईशो विदधातु मे ।। ३-१३-१७ ।।

Gita Press translation “Even as I was engaged in pushing on the work of creation,” he said to himself, “the earth, which was all the time being washed by the waters, sank to the lowest depths. Now what should be done in the matter by us, who have been charged with the work of creation? Let the Lord, from whose heart (thought) I sprang, contrive some device for me.””

दधातु is derived from the धातुः √धा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११)

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √धा-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √धा-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √धा-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः। In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √धा-धातुः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √धा-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “तिप्”।

(1) धा + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च , the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) धा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धा + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातोः” अधिकारः।

(4) धा + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) धा + तु । By 3-4-86 एरुः, इकारः of a लोँट् affix is substituted by उकारः।

(6) धा + शप् + तु । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(7) धा + तु । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(8) धा + धा + तु । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(9) ध + धा + तु । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(10) दधातु । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in reduplication (अभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

“वि” is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)
वि + दधातु = विदधातु।


1. Where has 3-4-86 एरुः (used in step 5 of this example) been used in Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

3. Can you spot a “आट्”-आगम: in the verse?

4. Why didn’t 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः apply (after step 9) in this example? (Which condition(s) was/were not satisfied?)

5. The अमरकोश: gives twenty-six (!) synonyms for the word “भूमि:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “भूमि” feminine, meaning “Earth”). One of them is “ क्षिति:” (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “क्षिति”) used in this verse. Please list the remaining twenty-five. We have seen these in a prior post. (Search this web site for “क्षिति”)।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the form “यस्य”, by which सूत्रम् is the “स्य” substitute prescribed?” Use the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “रूप” for “form”, use (in the passive) √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११) with the उपसर्ग: “वि” for “to prescribe.” Use the अव्ययम् “इति” as an end-quote.

Easy questions:

1. Match the columns:
a) अव्ययम्
b) स्त्रीलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्
c) नपुंसकलिङ्गे पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्
d) पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्

i. वार्भिः
ii. हृदयात्
iii. एवम्
iv. सृजत:

2. Where has 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः been used in the verse?

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