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जहति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form जहति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-15-6.

एतेऽलिनस्तव यशोऽखिललोकतीर्थं गायन्त आदिपुरुषानुपदं भजन्ते ||
प्रायो अमी मुनिगणा भवदीयमुख्या गूढं वनेऽपि न जहत्यनघात्मदैवम् ||१०-१५-६||

Gita Press translation “These bees, O most ancient Person, resort to You at every step, singing Your glory that is capable of purifying all the worlds. In all probability they are (no other than) hosts of hermits, the foremost among Your devotees, who do not forsake You, their Deity, though concealed in the forest, O sinless One!”

जहति is derived from the धातुः √हा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, ओँहाक् त्यागे, धातु-पाठः #३.९)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √हा-धातुः has ओकारः and ककारः as इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् respectively. After 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः only “हा” remains. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √हा-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √हा-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) हा + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) हा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हा + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) हा + शप् + झि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(5) हा + झि । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(6) हा + हा + झि । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(7) झा + हा + झि । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः
(क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्, ह्) are replaced by (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्, झ्) respectively.

(8) झ + हा + झि । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(9) झ + हा + अत् इ। By 7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌,The झकारः of a प्रत्ययः that follows a reduplicated (ref. 6-1-5 उभे अभ्यस्तम्) root is substituted by ‘अत्’।

(10) झहति । By 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्नाप्रत्ययः and of the reduplicated root is elided. (Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “अति” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-112 to apply.)

(11) जहति । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः


1. In verse 69 of Chapter Two of the गीता we see the two forms जागर्ति and जाग्रति। In which one has the झकार: of a प्रत्यय: taken the “अत्”-आदेश:?
(a) Only in जागर्ति।
(b) Only in जाग्रति।
(c) Both in जागर्ति and in जाग्रति।
(d) Neither in जागर्ति nor in जाग्रति।

2. Consider the form एते used in the verse. It is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “एतद्”। Derivation is as follows:
(1) एतद् + जस् by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा..
(2) एत अ + जस् by 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः।
(3) एत + जस् by 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।
(4) एत + शी by 7-1-17 जसः शी, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
(5) एत + ई by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
(6) एते by 6-1-87 आद्गुणः।

The question is – why has पाणिनि: prescribed the “शी”-आदेश: by 7-1-17 जसः शी (used in step 4)? Wouldn’t it be more economical to prescribe a “शि”-आदेश:? (We would get the same final form एते।)
Hint: अनुवृत्ति: of “शी” goes into 7-1-19 नपुंसकाच्च।

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌, the काशिका says – अन्तादेशापवादोऽयं जुसादेशेन तु बाध्यते। अददु:। Please explain.

4. Where has 8-2-81 एत ईद्बहुवचने been used in the verse?

5. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse has been translated to “In all probability”?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In all probability this question has no easy answer.” Paraphrase to “In all probability there is no easy answer of this question.” Use the adjective “लघु” for “easy.”

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot a “अन्त्”-आदेश: in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used in the verse?

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