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विनश्यति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form विनश्यति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7-2-40.

पथि च्युतं तिष्ठति दिष्टरक्षितं गृहे स्थितं तद्विहतं विनश्यति ।
जीवत्यनाथोऽपि तदीक्षितो वने गृहेऽपि गुप्तोऽस्य हतो न जीवति ।। ७-२-४० ।।

Gita Press translation “A thing protected by destiny remains intact even though dropped on the road; while that which is consigned to destruction by (an evil) fate perishes even though staying at home. A forlorn creature watched over by Providence survives (even) in the forest : while he whose doom is decreed by Providence will not survive though guarded at home.”

विनश्यति is derived from the धातुः √नश् (दिवादि-गणः, णशँ अदर्शने, धातु-पाठः # ४. ९१)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The धातुः “णशँ” is णोपदेशः, since it has an initial णकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-65 णो नः, there is the substitution of नकारः in the place of the initial णकारः of a धातुः। So, now we have “नशँ”।
The ending अकारः (which is an इत्) of “नशँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus the √नश्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √नश्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √नश्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) नश् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) नश् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) नश् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) नश् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) नश् + श्यन् + ति । By 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन्, the श्यन्-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the दिवादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(6) नश्यति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

“वि” is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
वि + नश्यति = विनश्यति।


1. Where has नश्यति been used in the गीता with the उपसर्ग: “प्र”?

2. Most of the operations which are prescribed for a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा can be found in the “भस्य” अधिकार: which पाणिनि: runs from 6-4-129 to the end of the Sixth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी। But there is a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which prescribes an operation for an अङ्गम् that has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, but this सूत्रम् is outside the “भस्य” अधिकार:। Which सूत्रम् is it and where has it been used in this verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verse?

4. Which सूत्रम् has been used for the “तिष्ठ”-आदेश: in place of “स्था” in the form तिष्ठति?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When the Sun rises, darkness is destroyed.” Use the धातु: √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) with the उपसर्ग: “उद्” for “to rise” and use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “अन्धकार” for “darkness.” Use यदा/तदा।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the sins of a person who studies the Geeta are destroyed.” Use the धातु: √इ (इङ् अध्ययने (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४१) with the उपसर्ग: “अधि” for “to study.” Use the appropriate forms of the pronouns “यद्” and “तद्”।

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of “जीवत्यनाथोऽपि” and mention the relevant rules.

2. Why didn’t the ईकार: in the form जीवति take the गुणादेश: by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

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