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सञ्जिहते 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form सञ्जिहते 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-40-15.

त्वय्यव्ययात्मन्पुरुषे प्रकल्पिता लोकाः सपाला बहुजीवसङ्कुलाः ।
यथा जले सञ्जिहते जलौकसोऽप्युदुम्बरे वा मशका मनोमये ।। १०-४०-१५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Conceived in You, the perfect and imperishable person, who can (only) be hinted at by the mind, the (numberless) universes – teeming with innumerable Jīvas (embodied beings) – with their guardians move about like the eggs of tiny aquatic creatures in water or even like the (tiny) insects in (the interior of) an Udumbara fruit.”

जिहते is derived from the धातुः √हा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, ओँहाङ् गतौ, धातु-पाठः #३. ८)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √हा-धातुः has ओकारः and ङकारः as इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् respectively. After 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः only “हा” remains. By 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्, √हा-धातुः will get आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √हा-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झ”।

(1) हा + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) हा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हा + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातोः” अधिकारः।

(4) हा + झे । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, the टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets एकारः as the replacement.

(5) हा + शप् + झे । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) हा + झे । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(7) हा + हा + झे । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(8) हि + हा + झे । By 7-4-76 भृञामित्‌, when followed by “श्लु”, the ending letter of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) of √भृ (डुभृञ् धारणपोषणयोः #३. ६), √मा (माङ् माने शब्दे च #३. ७) and √हा (ओहाङ् गतौ #३.८) gets replaced by a इकारः।

(9) झि + हा + झे । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः
(क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्, ह्) are replaced by (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्, झ्) respectively.

(10) झि + हा + अत् ए। By 7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌, the झकारः of a प्रत्ययः that follows a reduplicated (ref. 6-1-5 उभे अभ्यस्तम्) root is substituted by ‘अत्’। See question 3.

(11) झिहते । By 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्नाप्रत्ययः and of the reduplicated root is elided. (Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “अते” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-112 to apply.) See question 4.

(12) जिहते । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

“सम्” is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)।
सम् + जिहते = सञ्जिहते । 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः, 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः


1. Where has 6-1-10 श्लौ (used in step 7 of this example) been used in Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. After removing the इत् letters of (ओँहाङ् गतौ, धातु-पाठः #३. ८) we get the form “हा”। Can you recall another (much more common) धातु: which also results in “हा” after the इत् letters are removed? (That धातु: also belongs to the जुहोत्यादि-गणः।)

3. Which other (besides 7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌) सूत्रम् could have been used in step 10 to get the same result?

4. Can you recall a सूत्रम् which is an अपवाद: for 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः? Why didn’t that सूत्रम् apply in this example (in step 11)? (Which condition was not satisfied)?

5. What would have been the final form in this example if the विवक्षा had been कर्मणि (instead of कर्तरि)? (Would 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि apply?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When the Sun rises, lotuses bloom.” Use √हा (ओँहाङ् गतौ, धातु-पाठः #३. ८) with the उपसर्ग: “उद्” for “to rise.” Use √कस् (कसँ गतौ १. ९९६) with the उपसर्ग: “वि” for “to bloom.” Use यदा/तदा।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a यण्-आदेश: in the verse? (Look for a यण् letter – य्, व्, र्, ल् – which is preceded by a हल् and followed by a अच्)।

2. Can you spot three places in the verse where 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् has been used?

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