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ददाति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form ददाति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3-1-27.

कच्चित्कुरूणां परमः सुहृन्नो भामः स आस्ते सुखमङ्ग शौरिः ।
यो वै स्वसॄणां पितृवद्ददाति वरान्वदान्यो वरतर्पणेन ।। ३-१-२७ ।।

Gita Press translation “Dear Uddhava, is our brother-in-law (sister’s husband), Vasudeva (son of Śūrasena), quite happy – Vasudeva, who is the greatest friend and well-wisher of the Kurus, and who like a father, liberally bestows on his sisters (Kuntī and others) the gifts of their choice, bringing satisfaction (by offering rich presents) even to their husbands?”

ददाति is derived from the धातुः √दा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुदाञ् दाने,धातु-पाठः #३. १०))

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The ‘डु’ at the beginning of this verbal root gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The letter ‘ञ्’ at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √दा-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √दा takes आत्मनेपदम् affixes when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √दा takes परस्मैपदम् affixes. In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √दा takes either a आत्मनेपदम् affix or a परस्मैपदम् affix regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √दा is उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपदम् affix.

The विवक्षा लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

(1) दा + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) दा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) दा + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्। ‘तिप्’ gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have letter ‘श्’ as a इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) दा + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) दा + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप् – The शप् affix is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुकम् affix that is used signifying the agent.

(6) दा + ति । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः – The शप् affix following the verbal roots ‘हु’ etc. gets ‘श्लु’ (elision).

(7) दा + दा + ति । By 6-1-10 श्लौ – A verbal root when followed by ‘श्लु’ gets reduplicated.

(8) द + दा + ति । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः – The अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(9) ददाति ।


1. Where is √दा (डुदाञ् दाने,धातु-पाठः #३. १०) used with लँट् in a कर्तरि प्रयोग: in Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. The word स्वसॄणाम् (षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) is derived from the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “स्वसृ”। Why didn’t “स्वसृ” take the स्त्री-प्रत्यय: (feminine affix) “ङीप्” as per 4-1-5 ऋन्नेभ्यो ङीप्‌ (The प्रातिपदिकानि that end in a ऋकारः or नकारः get the ङीप् affix in the feminine gender)?

3. Which word used in the verse has the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः?

4. Where has the शप्-प्रत्यय: taken the लुक् elision in the verse?

5. Which सूत्रम् have we studied in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions “दा”?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Knowledge gives humility.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “विनय” for “humility.”

Easy question:

1. Can you spot a नकारादेश: (the letter न् used as a substitute) in the verse? How about a “इन”-आदेश:?

2. In how places has 6-4-3 नामि been used?

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