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अर्कम् mAs

Today we will look at the form अर्कम् mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 7.35.40.

ततः सूर्यं समुत्सृज्य राहुं फलमवेक्ष्य च । उत्पपात पुनर्व्योम ग्रहीतुं सिंहिकासुतम् ।। ७-३५-४० ।।
उत्सृज्यार्कमिमं राम प्रधावन्तं प्लवङ्गमम् । आवेक्ष्यैवं परावृत्तो मुखशेषः पराङ्मुखः ।। ७-३५-४१ ।।
इन्द्रमाशंसमानस्तु त्रातारं सिंहिकासुतः । इन्द्र इन्द्रेति सन्त्रासान्मुहुर्मुहुरभाषत ।। ७-३५-४३ ।।
राहोर्विक्रोशमानस्य प्रागेवालक्षितं स्वरम् । श्रुत्वेन्द्रोवाच मा भैषीरयमेनं निषूदये ।। ७-३५-४४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Leaving the sun and visualizing Rāhu to be a fruit, Hanumān thereupon again bounded in the skies to take hold of the son of Siṁhikā (40). Clearly perceiving this monkey (Hanumān) running with all speed (towards him) leaving the sun alone, O Rāma, Rāhu, who had such huge proportions and of whom the head (alone) remained retraced his steps with his face turned in the opposite direction (41). Looking forward to Indra as his protector, Rāhu (the son of Siṁhikā) for his part repeatedly cried out in his terror ‘Indra!’ ‘Indra!’ (42) Hearing the voice of the screaming Rāhu, which was already known to him, Indra said, ‘Don’t be afraid, I shall (presently) make short work of him’ (43).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अर्क’ is derived from the verbal root √अर्च् (अर्चँ पूजायाम् १. २३२). The ending अकार: of ‘अर्चँ’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) अर्च् + क । By the उणादि-सूत्रम् 3-40 कृदाधारार्चिकलिभ्य: क: – The affix ‘क’ is prescribed after the verbal roots listed below –
(i) √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०)
(ii) √दा (डुदाञ् दाने ३. १०)
(iii) √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११)
(iv) √रा (रा दाने २. ५२)
(v) √अर्च् (अर्चँ पूजायाम् १. २३२)
(vi) √कल् (कलँ शब्दसङ्ख्यानयोः १. ५७०)

Note: By the सूत्रम् 3-4-75 ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः – The affixes उण् etc may be used to denote a sense other than the dative or the ablative. Here the affix ‘क’ is used कर्मणि – to denote the object of the action – अर्च्यत इति (अर्च्यते इति) अर्क:।

Note: As per 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते the ककार: at the beginning of the affix ‘क’ should be a इत्। But बाहुलकान्न कस्येत्संज्ञा – we take recourse to the बहुलम् mentioned by पाणिनि: in 3-3-1 उणादयो बहुलम् and prevent the ककार: from getting the इत्संज्ञा here in order to get the desired form ‘अर्क’।

(2) अर्क् + क । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः – The consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(3) अर्क / अर्क्क । By 8-4-65 झरो झरि सवर्णे – Following a consonant (हल्), a झर् letter is optionally elided if it is followed by a झर् letter that is सवर्ण: with it. In the present example we have the consonant ‘र्’ which is followed by the झर् letter ‘क्’ which itself is followed by the झर् letter ‘क्’ that is सवर्ण: with it. Note: Every letter is  सवर्ण: with itself.

‘अर्क’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

‘अर्क’ is a पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(4) अर्क + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) अर्कम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘उण्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix तुमुँन् in ग्रहीतुम् used in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-44 च्लेः सिच् been used in the verses?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Many people in the world worship the Sun.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Sun is called ‘king of the sky.'”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Sun is also called ‘Lord of the day.'” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईश’ for ‘Lord.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-11 अप्तृन्तृच्स्वसृनप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृक्षत्तृहोतृपोतृप्रशास्तॄणाम् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘एन’ in एनम्?

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