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प्रेक्षकः mNs

Today we will look at the form प्रेक्षकः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.54.25

सुदर्शमिह मां प्रेक्ष्य मन्येऽहमिममाश्रमम् ।। २-५४-२४ ।।
आगमिष्यति वैदेहीं मां चापि प्रेक्षको जनः । अनेन कारणेनाहमिह वासं न रोचये ।। २-५४-२५ ।।
एकान्ते पश्य भगवन्नाश्रमस्थानमुत्तमम् । रमते यत्र वैदेही सुखार्हा जनकात्मजा ।। २-५४-२६ ।।
एतच्छ्रुत्वा शुभं वाक्यं भरद्वाजो महामुनिः । राघवस्य तु तद् वाक्यमर्थग्राहकमब्रवीत् ।। २-५४-२७ ।।
दशक्रोश इतस्तात गिरिर्यस्मिन्निवत्स्यसि । महर्षिसेवितः पुण्यः पर्वतः शुभदर्शनः ।। २-५४-२८ ।।

Gita Press translation – “Finding me easy to behold at this place, people keen to gaze on Sītā (a princess of Videha kingdom) as well as on myself, I presume, will frequent this hermitage. For this reason I do not approve of my sojourn here (24-25). (Pray, therefore) look for some excellent site for a hermitage in some lonely place, O venerable sir, where Sītā (a princess of the Videha dynasty), daughter of King Janaka, who deserves (every) comfort, may find delight.” (26) Hearing this pious submission (of Śrī Rāma), the great sage Bharadwāja for his part made the following answer pointing out the place sought by Śrī Rāma (a scion of Raghu): – (27) Sixty miles from this place, O dear son, lies a sacred mountain, on which you will take up your abode, which is inhabited by great Ṛṣis and is charming to look at and has a number of offshoots (28).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रेक्षक’ is derived from the verbal root √ईक्ष् (ईक्षँ दर्शने, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. ६९४) along with the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’। The अकारः at the end of “ईक्षँ” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(1) प्र ईक्ष् + ण्वुल् । By 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ – The affix तुमुँन् as well as ण्वुल् may be used following a verbal root to denote a future action when in conjunction with another action intended for the future action.
Note: क्रियार्था क्रिया is an action (क्रिया) whose अर्थ: (= प्रयोजनम्) is (another) action (क्रिया)।

वैदेहीं मां चापि प्रेक्षकः जनः आगमिष्यति। Here the action of ‘coming’ (आगमन-क्रिया) is the क्रियार्था क्रिया for the future action of ‘gazing’ (प्रेक्षण-क्रिया)।

(2) प्र ईक्ष् + वु । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) प्र ईक्ष् + अक । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ – The affixes “यु” and “वु” are substituted respectively by “अन” and “अक”। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix “वु” is replaced by “अक”।

(4) प्रेक्षक । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

‘प्रेक्षक’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(5) प्रेक्षक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) प्रेक्षक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) प्रेक्षकः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. What would be the final form in this example if the affix तुमुँन् were to be used (instead of the affix ण्वुल्)?

2. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (besides 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्) which prescribes the affix ण्वुल्?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘इट्’ in the form आगमिष्यति?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-49 सः स्यार्धधातुके been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sage Viśwāmitra came to Ayodhyā (keen) to see King Daśaratha.”

Advanced question:

1. Consider the word सुखार्हा (स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)। The विग्रह-वाक्यम् is सुखमर्हतीति (सुखम् अर्हति इति) सुखार्हा। Could we derive this form using the affix अण् prescribed by 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्? The answer is no. Why not?
The अनुवृत्ति: of कर्मणि runs from 3-2-1 down to 3-2-56. In this section can you find a सूत्रम् which we can use to derive सुखार्हा? Hint: पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √अर्ह् (अर्हँ पूजायाम् १. ८४१) in the सूत्रम्।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् been used in the verses?

2. In the verses can you spot a word in which the affix ‘हि’ has taken the लुक् elision?

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