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धनदम् mAs

Today we will look at the form धनदम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.2.32.

तं भेजेऽलम्बुषा देवी भजनीयगुणालयम् । वराप्सरा यतः पुत्राः कन्या चेडविडाभवत् ।। ९-२-३१ ।।
तस्यामुत्पादयामास विश्रवा धनदं सुतम् । प्रादाय विद्यां परमामृषिर्योगेश्वरात् पितुः ।। ९-२-३२ ।।

यतो यस्यां तृणबिन्दोः पुत्रा अभवन् ।। ३१ ।। ३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – A heavenly damsel, Alambuṣā, the foremost of the celestial nymphs, chose for her husband Tṛṇabindu, who was a repository of qualities worth acquiring. From their union were born a number of sons as well as a girl Iḍaviḍā (by name) (31). Through her the sage Viśravā begot a son in the person of the god Kubera (the lord and bestower of riches) after receiving the highest knowledge (of the Self or of Brahma) from his father, the sage Pulastya (a mind-born son of Brahmā and a master of Yoga) (32).

धनं ददातीति धनदः।

“द” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √दा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुदाञ् दाने, धातु-पाठः #३. १०).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “धनद” is derived as follows:

(1) धन + ङस् (ref: 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति) + दा + क । By 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः – When in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action) a verbal root which ends in a आकारः may take the affix “क” as long as there is no उपसर्गः (ref: 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे) associated with the verbal root. Note: The affix “क” (prescribed by this सूत्रम्) is an exception to the affix “अण्” prescribed by 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः, the term कर्मणि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः from the सूत्रम् 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “धन + ङस्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of ददाति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) धन + ङस् + दा + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धन + ङस् + द् + अ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or (ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।

(4) धन + ङस् + द । We form a compound between “धन + ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “द” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “धन + ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “द”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “धन + ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “धन + ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।

“धन + ङस् + द” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) धनद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(6) धनद + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “अम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) धनदम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः (used in step 1) been used in Chapter Nine of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः, the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says अनुपसर्गे किम्? गोसंदाय:। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the अभ्यासलोप: in भेजे?

4. In the verses, in which प्रातिपदिकम् (used as part of a compound) has a कृत्य-प्रत्यय: been used?

5. Can you spot the affix णिच् in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“May Kubera make you rich.” In this sentence “May” has been used in the sense of a blessing. So use a आशीर्लिँङ् form of √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०) to express the meaning of “May make.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “धनवत्” for “rich.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

2. In the verses, can you spot two प्रातिपदिके which end in a सकार:?


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