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पुरुषादैः mIp

Today we will look at the form पुरुषादैः mIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.26.13.

एवमेव महारौरवो यत्र निपतितं पुरुषं क्रव्यादा नाम रुरवस्तं क्रव्येण घातयन्ति यः केवलं देहम्भरः ।। ५-२६-१२ ।।
यस्त्विह वा उग्रः पशून्पक्षिणो वा प्राणत उपरन्धयति तमपकरुणं पुरुषादैरपि विगर्हितममुत्र यमानुचराः कुम्भीपाके तप्ततैले उपरन्धयन्ति ।। ५-२६-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
क्रव्येण निमित्तेन मांसार्थमित्यर्थः ।। १२ ।। प्राणतः सजीवान् उपरन्धयति पचति । अपकरुणं निष्कृपम् ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Quite similar is (the hell called) Mahāraurava (a class of Rurus), called Kravyādas (flesh-eaters, so-called because of their being carnivorous by nature) kill for the sake of flesh the man who solely nourishes (here) his own body (hating others,) and (consequently) falls into that region (12). Again, in (the hell called) Kumbhīpāka in the region, the servants of Yama fry in boiling oil that merciless fellow, censured even by the Rākṣasas (those feeding on the human flesh,) who is actually so cruel as to cook the beasts and birds alive (13).

पुरुषानत्तीति पुरुषादः।

“आद” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √अद् (अदादि-गणः, अदँ भक्षणे २. १).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “पुरुषाद” is derived as follows:

(1) पुरुष + आम् (ref: 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति) + अद् + अण् । By 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण् – The affix “अण्” may be used after a verbal root when in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action.) Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्, the term कर्मणि ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “पुरुष + आम्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of अत्ति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix आम् is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) पुरुष + आम् + अद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पुरुष + आम् + आद् + अ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

(4) पुरुष + आम् + आद । We form a compound between “पुरुष + आम्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “आद” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “पुरुष + आम्”)  invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “आद”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “पुरुष + आम्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “पुरुष + आम्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।

“पुरुष आम् + आद” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पुरुष + आद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) पुरुषाद । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, तृतीया-बहुवचनम्

(7) पुरुषाद + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “भिस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) पुरुषाद + ऐस् । By 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् – Following a अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:, the affix “भिस्” is replaced by “ऐस्”।

(9) पुरुषादैस् । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(10) पुरुषादैः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण् (used in step 1), the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – आदित्यं पश्यतीत्यादावनभिधानान्न। Please explain.

2. Where else (besides in पुरुषादैः) has 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण् been used in the verses?

3. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which is a अपवाद: for 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्?

4. From which verbal root is घातयन्ति derived?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This tiger is not a man-eater.”

Advanced question:

1. Can you find the सूत्रम् which prescribes the augment नुँम् in the form उपरन्धयति? We have not studied this सूत्रम् in the class. Hint: The topic of the augment नुँम् runs in the अष्टाध्यायी from 7-1-58 इदितो नुम् धातोः down to 7-1-83 दृक्स्ववस्स्वतवसां छन्दसि ।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a place in the verses where the सन्धि-कार्यम् has not been done?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verses?

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