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निशाचरी fNs

Today we will look at the form निशाचरी fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.6.13.

तस्याः स्वनेनातिगभीररंहसा साद्रिर्मही द्यौश्च चचाल सग्रहा । रसा दिशश्च प्रतिनेदिरे जनाः पेतुः क्षितौ वज्रनिपातशङ्कया ।। १०-६-१२ ।।
निशाचरीत्थं व्यथितस्तना व्यसुर्व्यादाय केशांश्चरणौ भुजावपि । प्रसार्य गोष्ठे निजरूपमास्थिता वज्राहतो वृत्र इवापतन्नृप ।। १०-६-१३ ।।

रसाः रसातलानि ।। १२ ।। व्यादाय मुखं विवृत्य । निजरूपमास्थिता मरणसमये कपटमयुक्तमितीव ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – As a result of her very deep and violent roar the earth with its mountains and heaven with its planets shook, the subterranean worlds as well as the (four) quarters echoed and people toppled down on the ground under the apprehension of a thunderbolt (12). Thus tormented at her breasts and reverting (in her helpless state) to her own (demoniac) form, she (sprang and) fell dead in (the outskirts of) Vraja, opening her mouth and flinging about her hair and stretching her legs and arms too (even) like the demon Vṛtra knocked down by the thunderbolt (of Indra), O protector of men! (13)

निशायां चरतीति निशाचरी (राक्षसी)।

“चर” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √चर् (चरँ गत्यर्थ: १. ६४०).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “निशाचर” is derived as follows:

(1) निशा + ङि + चर् + ट । By 3-2-16 चरेष्टः – The affix “ट” may be used after the verbal root √चर् (चरँ गत्यर्थ: १. ६४०) when in composition with a पदम् which denotes the locus (of the action.)

Note: The term अधिकरणे (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-16 from the prior सूत्रम् 3-2-15 अधिकरणे शेतेः) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “निशा ङि” (which is the locus (अधिकरणम्) of चरति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।

(2) निशा + ङि + चर् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

We form a compound between “निशा + ङि” (which is the उपपदम्) and “चर” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “निशा + ङि”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “चर”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “निशा + ङि” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “निशा + ङि” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“निशा + ङि + चर” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(3) निशाचर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

The feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “निशाचरी” is derived as follows:

(4) निशाचर + ङीप् । By 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः – To denote the feminine gender, the affix ङीप् is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् which satisfies the following conditions:
(i) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a अकार:
(ii) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a non-secondary affix which is either टित् (has टकार: as a इत्) or is one of the following – ‘ढ’, ‘अण्’, ‘अञ्’, ‘द्वयसच्’, ‘दघ्नच्’, ‘मात्रच्’, ‘तयप्’, ‘ठक्’, ‘ठञ्’, ‘कञ्’ or ‘क्वरप्’।

(5) निशाचर + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। ‘निशाचर’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्

(6) निशाचर् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When a ईकारः or a तद्धित-प्रत्यय: follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (इकारः or ईकारः) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (अकारः or आकारः) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes लोपः। As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending अकार: of the अङ्गम् takes लोपः।

= निशाचरी ।

The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(7) निशाचरी + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) निशाचरी + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) निशाचरी । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix “सुँ”, “ति” or “सि” is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix “ङी” or “आप्”।


1. In Chapter Eleven of the गीता can you spot a word wherein 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः (used in step 4) has applied on the basis of there being a टकार: as a इत्? Hint: In Chapter Eleven there are very few words which contain the feminine affix ङीप्। One of them must be the answer to this question (because 4-1-15 prescribes the feminine affix ङीप्।)

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-16 चरेष्टः (used in step 1) the काशिका says – प्रत्ययान्तरकरणं ङीबर्थम्। Please explain.

3. In the absence of 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः, which सूत्रम् would have applied in step 4?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the एकारादेश: in the form पेतु:?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“An ogress by the name Trijaṭā consoled Sītā.” Use the verbal root √सान्त्व् (षान्त्वँ सामप्रयोगे १०. ५१) for to “console.” Use the अव्ययम् “नाम” for “by the name.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has  the सूत्रम् 8-3-7 नश्छव्यप्रशान् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the औकारादेश: (substitute “औ”) in the form द्यौ:?


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