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पारगः mNs

Today we will look at the form पारगः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.41.4.

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च पूर्वैस्तुल्योऽसि तेजसा | पितॄणां गतिमन्विच्छ येन चाश्वोऽपवाहितः ।। १-४१-२ ।।
अन्तर्भौमानि सत्त्वानि वीर्यवन्ति महान्ति च | तेषां त्वं प्रतिघातार्थं सासिं गृह्णीष्व कार्मुकम् ।। १-४१-३ ।।
अभिवाद्याभिवाद्यांस्त्वं हत्वा विघ्नकरानपि | सिद्धार्थः संनिवर्तस्व मम यज्ञस्य पारगः ।। १-४१-४ ।।
एवमुक्तोंऽशुमान्सम्यक्सगरेण महात्मना | धनुरादाय खड्गं च जगाम लघुविक्रमः ।। १-४१-५ ।।

Gita Press translation – ‘You are valiant and learned and the compeer of your forbears in splendor. Trace the whereabouts of your uncles as well as of the man by whom the (sacrificial) horse has been stolen away (2). The living beings inhabiting the subterranean regions are full of (great) prowess and gigantic (of body). In order to meet their assault, therefore, take up a bow along with a sword (3). Bowing to those who deserve to be greeted and at the same time killing those who come in your way, return (only) when you have accomplished your purpose, and (thus) ensure the completion of my sacrificial performance.’ (4) Duly instructed thus by the high-souled Sagara and taking his bow and sword, Aṁśumān departed with quick paces (5).

पारं गच्छतीति पारग:।

“ग” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “पारग” is derived as follows:

(1) पार + ङस् + गम् + ड । By 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः – The affix “ड” may be used after the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either “अन्त” or “अत्यन्त” or “अध्वन्” or “दूर” or “पार” or “सर्व” or “अनन्त”।

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-48, the term अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “पार + ङस्” gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) पार + ङस् + गम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पार + ङस् + ग् + अ । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि portion takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has डकारः as an indicatory letter. Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having डकार: as a इत् in “ड”। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः। See easy question 2.

= पार ङस् + ग ।

We form a compound between “पार ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “ग” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “पार ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “ग”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “पार ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “पार ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“पार ङस् + ग” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) पार + ग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पारग ।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(5) पारग + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) पारग + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) पारगः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the affix ‘ड’ been used with the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) in Chapter Twelve of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – संज्ञायामिति निवृत्तम्। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution ‘व’ in the form संनिवर्तस्व?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I wish I become a master of grammar.” Use आशीर्लिँङ् to express the meaning of “I wish.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “master.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-10 सान्तमहतः संयोगस्य been used in the verses?

2. By which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: define the term टि?

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