Home » 2012 » October » 15

Daily Archives: October 15, 2012

शत्रुघ्नः mNs

Today we will look at the form शत्रुघ्नः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.11.14.

तदीयं धनमानीय सर्वं राज्ञे न्यवेदयत् । शत्रुघ्नश्च मधोः पुत्रं लवणं नाम राक्षसम् । हत्वा मधुवने चक्रे मथुरां नाम वै पुरीम् ।। ९-११-१४ ।।
मुनौ निक्षिप्य तनयौ सीता भर्त्रा विवासिता । ध्यायन्ती रामचरणौ विवरं प्रविवेश ह ।। ९-११-१५ ।।

No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – (Bharat) bringing their wealth (to Ayodhyā,) presented it all to the King (Śrī Rāma.) Again, getting rid of the demon, Lavaṇa by name, son of Madhu, Śatrughna for his part founded on the site of (the forest of) Madhuvana a city known as Mathurā (14). Having committed Her sons (Kuśa and Lava) to the care of the sage (Vālmīki) and contemplating on Śrī Rāma’s feet – so the tradition goes – Sītā, who had been exiled by Her (divine) Spouse (and could no longer bear separation from Him) found Her way into the bowels of the earth (that parted asunder to take Her) (15).

शत्रुं हन्तीति शत्रुघ्नः।

“घ्न” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. २).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “शत्रुघ्न” is derived as follows:

(1) शत्रु + ङस् (ref: 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति) + हन् + क । By the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-5 तुन्दशोकयोः परिमृजापनुदोः) मूलविभुजादिभ्यः कः – The affix “क” may be used to derive forms such as “मूलविभुज”।
Note: The मूलविभुजादि-गण: is a आकृति-गण:। The members of this गण: have not been explicitly listed. When we see a शिष्ट-प्रयोगः (usage accepted by the scholars) such as “शत्रुघ्न” wherein the grammatical operations (based on the affix “क”) are similar to those in “मूलविभुज” we have to understand that this usage is included in the मूलविभुजादि-गण:।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

Note: In the above वार्तिकम्, the term कर्मणि (which comes down as अनुवृत्तिः from 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence the object “शत्रु + ङस्” gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।

(2) शत्रु + ङस् + हन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: The affix “क” is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्)। This allows 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि to apply in the next step.

(3) शत्रु + ङस् + ह् न् + अ । By 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि – The उपधा (penultimate letter – ref. 1-1-65) of the verbal roots √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७), √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २), √जन् ([जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४], [जनँ जनने ३. २५]), √खन् (खनुँ अवदारणे १. १०२०) and √घस् (घसॢँ अदने १. ८१२) is elided, when followed by an अजादि-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) or a ङित् (has the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्) with the exclusion of the अङ्-प्रत्ययः।

(4) शत्रु + ङस् + घ् न् + अ । By 7-3-54 हो हन्तेर्ञ्णिन्नेषु – The हकारः of √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) gets replaced by a letter of the कवर्ग: when followed by an affix with ञकारः or णकारः as an इत् , or when followed (immediately) by a नकारः।
Note: As per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः – When a substitute is ordained, the closest substitute is intended. Of the five letters in the क-वर्गः (‘क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्’), ‘घ्’ is the closest substitute because it is both voiced (घोषवान्) as well as aspirate (महाप्राण:) just like the letter ‘ह्’।

We form a compound between “शत्रु + ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “घ्न” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “शत्रु + ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “घ्न”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “शत्रु + ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “शत्रु + ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“शत्रु + ङस् + घ्न” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) शत्रुघ्न । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(6) शत्रुघ्न + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) शत्रुघ्न + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) शत्रुघ्नः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-5 तुन्दशोकयोः परिमृजापनुदोः) मूलविभुजादिभ्यः कः (used in step 1) been used in the last five verses of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः been used in the verses?

3. Where has the affix तृच् been used in the verses?

4. प्रविवेश is derived from the verbal root √विश् (विशँ प्रवेशने ६. १६०) with the उपसर्ग: “प्र”। Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) wherein पाणिनि: specifically mentions this verbal root? Why doesn’t this सूत्रम् apply in the form प्रविवेश?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the एकारादेश: in the form चक्रे?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There’s not a single cloud in the sky today.” Use the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-5 तुन्दशोकयोः परिमृजापनुदोः) मूलविभुजादिभ्यः कः to derive a word for “cloud” (one which bears water – अपो बिभर्ति)।

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

2. In the verses can you spot a इकारान्तं प्रातिपदिकम् (a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in a इकार:)?

Recent Posts

October 2012