Home » 2012 » October » 16

Daily Archives: October 16, 2012

निशाचर mVs

Today we will look at the form निशाचर mVs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.41.20.

मां निहत्य तु रामोऽसावचिरात्त्वां वधिष्यति । अनेन कृतकृत्योऽस्मि म्रिये चाप्यरिणा हतः ।। ३-४१-१७ ।।
दर्शनादेव रामस्य हतं मामवधारय । आत्मानं च हतं विद्धि हृत्वा सीतां सबान्धवम् ।। ३-४१-१८ ।।
आनयिष्यसि चेत्सीतामाश्रमात्सहितो मया । नैव त्वमपि नाहं वै नैव लङ्का न राक्षसाः ।। ३-४१-१९ ।।
निवार्यमाणस्तु मया हितैषिणा न मृष्यसे वाक्यमिदं निशाचर । परेतकल्पा हि गतायुषो नरा हितं न गृह्णन्ति सुहृद्भिरीरितम् ।। ३-४१-२० ।।

Gita Press translation – Having killed me, the aforesaid Rāma for his part will dispose of you before long. I shall, however, feel accomplished of purpose through such death; for I would fain give up the ghost when killed by an enemy (rather than killed by you, my king) (17). Take me as killed at the very sight of Rāma and deem yourself as killed with your kith and kin as soon as you bear away Sītā (18). If, accompanied by me, you fetch Sītā from the hermitage, under no circumstances will you survive nor I nor even Laṅkā (your capital) nor the ogres (19). You do not heed this counsel of mine, though being checked by me, your wellwisher, O ranger of the night! For men whose span of life has come to an end and who are on the verge of death do not accept the salutary advice tendered by their disinterested friends (20).

निशायां चरतीति निशाचरः (राक्षस:)।

“चर” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √चर् (चरँ गत्यर्थ: १. ६४०).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “निशाचर” is derived as follows:

(1) निशा + ङि + चर् + ट । By 3-2-16 चरेष्टः – The affix “ट” may be used after the verbal root √चर् (चरँ गत्यर्थ: १. ६४०) when in composition with a पदम् which denotes the locus (of the action.)

Note: The term अधिकरणे (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-16 from the prior सूत्रम् 3-2-15 अधिकरणे शेतेः) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “निशा ङि” (which is the locus (अधिकरणम्) of चरति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।

(2) निशा + ङि + चर् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

We form a compound between “निशा + ङि” (which is the उपपदम्) and “चर” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “निशा + ङि”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “चर”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “निशा + ङि” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “निशा + ङि” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“निशा + ङि + चर” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(3) निशाचर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धिः

(4) (हे) निशाचर + सुँ (सम्बुद्धिः) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। The affix “सुँ” has the सम्बुद्धि-सञ्ज्ञा here by 2-3-49 एकवचनं संबुद्धिः

(5) (हे) निशाचर + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The सकार: which is an एकाल् (single letter) प्रत्यय: gets the अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः

(6) (हे) निशाचर । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः


1. In the verses can you spot a तिङन्तं पदम् which is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical construct)?

2. Where has the affix “श” been used in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “धि”-आदेश: in the word विद्धि?

4. The form गृह्णन्ति is derived from the verbal root √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१). Can you recall six सूत्राणि (which we have studied) wherein पाणिनि: specifically mentions this verbal root? Which one of these six सूत्राणि has been used in the form गृह्णन्ति?

5. Please correct the following sentence:
शूर्पणखा नामैका निशाचरा बभूव।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A fisherman found a ring in the stomach of a fish.” Use the सूत्रम् 3-2-16 चरेष्टः to form a word for “fish” (“own who roams in the water” – जले चरति)। Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “धीवर” for “fisherman.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “अङ्गुलीय” for “(finger-)ring.”

Easy Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution “ना” in the form अरिणा?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चाऽसम्बुद्धौ been used in the verses?

Recent Posts

October 2012