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निशायाम् fLs

Today we will look at the form निशायाम् fLs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.35.1

उपास्य रात्रिशेषं तु शोणाकूले महर्षिभिः | निशायां सुप्रभातायां विश्वामित्रोऽभ्यभाषत || १-३५-१ ||
सुप्रभाता निशा राम पूर्वा सन्ध्या प्रवर्तते | उत्तिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ भद्रं ते गमनायाभिरोचय || १-३५-२ ||
तच्छ्रुत्वा वचनं तस्य कृतपूर्वाह्णिकक्रियः | गमनं रोचयामास वाक्यं चेदमुवाच ह || १-३५-३ ||
अयं शोणः शुभजलो गाधः पुलिनमण्डितः | कतरेण पथा ब्रह्मन्सन्तरिष्यामहे वयम् || १-३५-४ ||

Gita Press translation – Having reposed for the rest of the night on the bank of Ṣoṇa along with the great Ṛṣis (who accompanied him on the journey,) Viśwāmitra spoke (as follows) on the night having culminated in a beautiful sunrise: – (1) “The night has ended in a lovely dawn, O Rāma! The morning twilight has set in. Get up, arise and make yourself inclined to proceed (further.) May prosperity attend you!” (2) Hearing his instruction as aforesaid and having finished his morning duties (Sandhyā etc.,) Śrī Rāma made himself inclined to leave (for the journey) and spoke the following words: so the tradition goes: – (3) “The river Sona, whose waters are so holy, is fordable here and (as such) adorned with sandy banks. By which of the two fords (appearing before us) shall we wade through it, O holy sir?” (4)

नितरां श्यति (नाशयति व्यापारान्) इति निशा।

“निश” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √शो (शो तनूकरणे ४. ४०) along with the उपसर्गः “नि”

(1) In the सूत्रम् 3-1-136 आतश्चोपसर्गे (to be used in the next step) the term उपसर्गे ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “नि” (which is a उपसर्ग: by 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्। (The affixes which are prescribed from this सूत्रम् onward only apply in the presence of the उपपदम् when applicable.) Note: This is a अधिकार-सूत्रम् which runs up to the end of Chapter Three of the अष्टाध्यायी। Note: The term उपपदम् is derived as follows: उप (= समीपे) उच्चारितं पदम् = उपपदम्।

(2) नि शा + क । By 3-1-136 आतश्चोपसर्गे – The affix “क” may be used after a verbal root ending in a आकार:, when in composition with a उपसर्गः (ref: 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)। By 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति – The ending एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by a आकार:, but not in the context where a शकार: which is a इत् follows. Hence the ending ओकार: of the verbal root “शो” is replaced by a आकार: here.

(3) नि शा + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(4) नि श् + अ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।

(5) निश । We form a compound between “नि” (which is the उपपदम्) and “श” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “नि”)  invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “श”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “नि” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “नि” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।

“निश” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “निशा” is derived as follows:

(6) निश + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि “अज” etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in अकारः get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(7) निश + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) निशा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्

(9) निशा + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(10) निशा + आम् । By 7-3-116 ङेराम्नद्याम्नीभ्यः – The affix “ङि”, following a base ending in “नदी” or “आप्” or following the term “नी”, gets “आम्” as the substitute. The entire प्रत्ययः is replaced as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकार: of “आम्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) निशा + याट् आम् । By 7-3-113 याडापः – The ङित् affixes following a base ending in an “आप्” affix get the augment “याट्”। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the “याट्”-आगम: joins at the beginning of the प्रत्ययः “आम्”।

(12) निशा + या आम् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(13) निशायाम् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः


1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् “निशा” been used in Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम्  2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (used in step 5), the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – अतिङ् किम्? मा भवान् भूत्। ‘3-3-175 माङि लुङ्’  इति सप्तमीनिर्देशान्माङुपपदम्। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the ककारादेश: in the word वाक्यम्?

4. What would be an alternate form for सन्तरिष्यामहे?

5. Can you spot the affix णिच् in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Śrī Hanumān thought – “I should enter Laṅkā at night.”

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot an augment अट् in the verses?

2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is the word पथा derived? Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions this प्रातिपदिकम्?

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