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उपानत् fNs

Today we will look at the form उपानत् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 10-68-24

अहो महच्चित्रमिदं कालगत्या दुरत्यया ।
आरुरुक्षत्युपानद् वै शिरो मुकुटसेवितम् ।। १०-६८-२४ ।।

Gita Press translation “Oh, what a great wonder it is that by force of Time, so hard to overcome, the shoe actually aspires to mount the head, which is occupied by the crown.”

The स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “उपानह्” is formed by adding the क्विप्-प्रत्यय: to the धातु: “नह्” preceded by the उपसर्ग: “उप”। The ending अकार: of “उप” gets the दीर्घादेश: by 6-3-116 नहिवृतिवृषिव्यधिरुचिसहितनिषु क्वौ
The entire क्विप्-प्रत्यय: takes सर्वापहार-लोप:। The ककार: and पकार: are removed using 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् along with 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The इकारः in the क्विप्-प्रत्यय: is उच्चारणार्थः। The single letter वकार: that remains gets अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः। By 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य, this वकार: which is अपृक्तः takes लोपः।

The क्विप्-प्रत्यय: has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् । By 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, even though the क्विप्-प्रत्ययः has taken लोपः, “उपानह्” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and hence it will take the affixes सुँ, औ, जस् etc. mandated by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(1) उपानह् + सुँ ।

(2) उपानह् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) उपानह् । सकार-लोपः by 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, उपानह् gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(4) उपानध् । By 8-2-34 नहो धः, the “नह्” which is at the end of a पदम् gets धकार-आदेशः। By 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending हकारः of “उपानह्” gets replaced by धकारः।

(5) उपानद् । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते, a झल् letter occurring at the end of a पदम् is replaced by a जश् letter.

(6) उपानत्/उपानद् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, a झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.


1. 8-2-34 नहो धः is an अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

2. How would you ask the above question in Sanskrit?

3. Which सर्वनामशब्द: has been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot a सकारान्त-प्रातिपदिकम्?

5. Please list the two synonyms for the word “उपानत्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “उपानह्” feminine, meaning “shoe”) as listed in the अमरकोश:।
अथ पादुका ।
पादूरुपानत् स्त्री ॥२-१०-३०॥
(इति त्रीणि “पादत्राणस्य” नामानि)

6. Why wasn’t there a नुँम्-आगम: (by 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः) in the form “महत्”? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

7. Where has the word “दुरत्यया” (used in this verse) been used in the गीता?

8. What is the विभक्ति:/वचनम् of “दुरत्यया” in the गीता? What is it here? (This is not an easy question.)

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get आरुरुक्षति + उपानद् = आरुरुक्षत्युपानद्?

2. Please do पदच्छेद: of महच्चित्रम् and mention the relevant rules.

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