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निराशिषः mNp

Today we will look at the form निराशिषः from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 8-12-6

तवैव चरणाम्भोजं श्रेयस्कामा निराशिषः ।
विसृज्योभयतः सङ्गं मुनयः समुपासते ।। ८-१२-६ ।।

Gita Press translation “Sages seeking blessedness and devoid of all (other) aspirations duly worship Your lotus-feet alone, giving up attachment to both (this and the other world).”

The प्रातिपदिकम् “निराशिस्” is a समास: (compound) formed by using the अव्ययम् निर्/निस् and the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “आशिस्”। It is an adjective. The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्
Note: The  ending सकार: of “निराशिस्” comes from the धातु: “शास्” (for details see वार्तिकम् under 6-4-34 शास इदङ्हलोः।)

Being a समासः, by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च, “निराशिस्” gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा and the सुँप्-प्रत्ययाः are ordained after it by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…

(1) निराशिस् + जस् ।

(2) निराशिस् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of जस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) निराशिस: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(4) निराशिष: । By 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च, the सकारः of the धातु: “शास्” gets षकारः as a replacement since it is preceded by an इण् letter।


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used in this verse?

2. Where has the युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used? Was an alternate form possible?

3. Can you spot the word in the verse which ends in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:? (Ref. 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले, 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। Who is (are) the common doer(s)? Which is the later action of the common doer(s)?

4. This same word (answer to question 3) ending in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय: comes in the last verse of a chapter in the गीता। Which chapter is that? Who is (are) the common doer(s) there? Which is the later action of the common doer(s)?

5. Why couldn’t the usual सूत्रम् 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः be used in step 4?

6. Please list the three synonyms for the word “चरण:/चरणम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “चरण” masculine/neuter, meaning “foot”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
पादः पदङ्घ्रिश्चरणोऽस्त्रियाम् ।।२-६-७१।।
(इति चत्वारि “चरणस्य” नामानि)

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A man has two feet, but a lion has four.” Use the षष्ठी विभक्ति: to express the meaning of “has.”

8. In the commentary on the सूत्रम् 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च, the काशिका says – इण्को: इत्येव, शास्ति। Please explain what this means.

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get विसृज्य + उभयतः = विसृज्योभयतः ?

2. Derive the form सङ्गम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “सङ्ग” (declined like राम-शब्द:)।

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