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कथयन् mNs

Today we will look at the form कथयन् from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

तथा तु दीन: कथयन्नराधिपः प्रियस्य पुत्रस्य विवासनातुरः |
गतेऽर्धरात्रे भृशदुःखपीडितस् तदा जहौ प्राणमुदारदर्शनः || २-६४-७८ ||

Gita Press translation “Speaking as aforesaid, the king of noble aspect, who was already feeling miserable and distressed on the score of his beloved son’s exile, felt sore stricken with agony by the time half the night passed and forthwith gave up the ghost.”

‘कथयत्’ is a शतृँ-प्रत्ययान्त-शब्द:।

‘कथयत्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्। 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः ‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’ etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कथयत्’

(1) कथयत् + सुँ । “कथयत्” is a उगित् (since the ऋकार: in ‘शतृँ’ is an इत्)। Note: The affix “सुँ” has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-1-70 to apply in the next step.

(2) कथय नुँम् त् + सुँ । By 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः, a non-verbal base with an ‘उक्’ (‘उ’, ‘ऋ’, ‘ऌ’) as a marker takes the नुँम् augment when followed by a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix.

(3) कथयन्त् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(4) कथयन्त् । सकार-लोपः by 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Note: Now ‘कथयन्त्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः to apply in the next step.

(5) कथयन् । By 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः, the संयोगान्तपदम् “कथयन्त्” takes लोपः। As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (तकार:) of the पदम् takes लोपः। Note: After this, 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य does not apply because of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्

Questions:

1. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कथयत्’ used in the गीता? (Chapter 10. Also Chapter 18.)

2. The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कथयत्’ is an adjective – which noun is it qualifying in this verse?

3. Which noun is it qualifying in each occurrence in the गीता (answers to question #1)?

4. Please list the two synonyms for the word “उदार:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “उदार” adjective, meaning “generous/noble/sincere.”)
दक्षिणे सरलोदारौ ॥३-१-८॥
(इति त्रीणि “ऋज्वाशयस्य” नामानि)

5. Match the columns:
a) प्रथमा-एकवचनम्
b) षष्ठी-एकवचनम्
c) द्वितीया-एकवचनम्
d) अव्ययम्

i. तथा, तदा
ii. नराधिप:
iii. पुत्रस्य
iv. प्राणम्

6. The नुँम्-आगम: as well as the नुँट्-आगम: – after अनुबन्ध-लोप: (removing the इत् letters) – results in the नकार: as an augment. What is the difference between them?
a) The difference is only in the वेद: because of the accent (स्वर:)।
b) The नुँट्-आगम: attaches to the beginning of a term while the नुँम्-आगम: goes to the end of the term.
c) The नुँम्-आगम: attaches to the beginning of a term while the नुँट्-आगम: goes to the end of the term.
d) The नुँट्-आगम: attaches to the beginning of a term while the नुँम्-आगम: goes after the last vowel of the term.

7. How would you ask the question – “What (is) the difference between them (two)?” – in Sanskrit? Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “भेद” for “difference.”

8. In step 2, by which सूत्रम् did the सुँ-प्रत्यय: get the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा (which is required for applying 7-1-70)?

Easy questions:

1. Please derive the form पुत्रस्य (षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “पुत्र” – declined like राम-शब्द:।

2. Can you spot where the सूत्रम् 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति has been used?

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