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प्रियंवद mVs

Today we will look at the form प्रियंवद mVs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.16.4.

स कदाचित् प्रभातायां शर्वर्यां रघुनन्दनः । प्रययावभिषेकार्थं रम्यां गोदावरीं नदीम् ।। ३-१६-२ ।।
प्रह्वः कलशहस्तस्तु सीतया सह वीर्यवान् । पृष्ठतोऽनुव्रजन्भ्राता सौमित्रिरिदमब्रवीत् ।। ३-१६-३ ।।
अयं स कालः सम्प्राप्तः प्रियो यस्ते प्रियंवद । अलङ्कृत इवाभाति येन संवत्सरः शुभः ।। ३-१६-४ ।।
नीहारपरुषो लोकः पृथिवी सस्यमालिनी । जलान्यनुपभोग्यानि सुभगो हव्यवाहनः ।। ३-१६-५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Once that delight of the Raghus, at break of day, went to the beautiful Godāvarī river for the sake of a bath (2). Following at the heels of Śrī Rāma with a vessel for water in his hand together with Sītā, his brave brother, the son of Sumitrā, spoke as follows :- (3) “Now has arrived that season which is dear to you, O polite brother, with which the blessed year appears as though ornamented (4). The people feel dry with cold, the earth is rich with crops; the waters are unenjoyable, the fire is agreeable” (5).

प्रियं वदतीति प्रियंवद:।

“वद” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि, # १. ११६४).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रियंवद” is derived as follows:

(1) प्रिय + ङस् + वद् + खच् । By 3-2-38 प्रियवशे वदः खच् – The affix “खच्” may be used after the verbal root √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि, # १. ११६४) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either “प्रिय” or “वश”।

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-38, the term प्रियवशे ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “प्रिय ङस्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of वदति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) प्रिय + ङस् + वद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= प्रिय + ङस् + वद

We form a compound between “प्रिय + ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “वद” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “प्रिय + ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “वद”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “प्रिय + ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “प्रिय + ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“प्रिय + ङस् + वद” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(3) प्रिय + वद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) प्रिय मुँम् + वद । By 6-3-67 अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् – When followed by a उत्तरपदम् (latter member of a compound) which ends in a खित् (having खकार: as a इत्) affix, the पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) takes the augment मुँम् provided the following two conditions are satisfied:
(i) the पूर्वपदम् is either “अरुस्”, “द्विषत्” or ends in a अच् (vowel)
(ii) the पूर्वपदम् is not a अव्ययम्
As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the मुँम् augment joins after the last vowel (in this case अकार:) of “प्रिय”।

(5) प्रियम् + वद । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। प्रियम् has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः to apply in the next step

(6) प्रियंवद । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धिः

(7) (हे) प्रियंवद + सुँ (सम्बुद्धिः) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। The affix “सुँ” has the सम्बुद्धि-सञ्ज्ञा here by 2-3-49 एकवचनं संबुद्धिः

(8) (हे) प्रियंवद + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The सकार: which is an एकाल् (single letter) प्रत्यय: gets the अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः

(9) (हे) प्रियंवद । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the affix खच् prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-38 प्रियवशे वदः खच् (used in step 1), the काशिका says – चकारः ‘6-4-94 खचि ह्रस्वः’ इति विशेषणार्थः। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the comment (shown in question 1) made in the काशिका, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘एकानुबन्धग्रहणे द्व्यनुबन्धस्य न ग्रहणम्’ इति खशि न भविष्यतीत्यादिना वृत्तिग्रन्थस्यायुक्तत्वमाहुः। Please explain.

3. Can you spot an affix यत् in the verses?

4. Which affix is used to derive the form ‘प्रिय’?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ङीप् in the form ‘नदी’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“No one likes a person who does not speak kindly.” Paraphrase to “A person who does not speak kindly is not pleasing unto anyone.” Use √रुच् (रुचँ दीप्तावभिप्रीतौ च १. ८४७) for “to please.” To express the meaning of “unto” use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “anyone.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “one who speaks kindly.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has 7-3-105 आङि चापः been used in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses has लँट् been used?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the affix खच् prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-38 प्रियवशे वदः खच् (used in step 1), the काशिका says – चकारः ‘6-4-94 खचि ह्रस्वः’ इति विशेषणार्थः। Please explain.
    Answer: Why has पाणिनि: used the चकार: as a इत् in the affix ‘खच्’? The काशिका answers – विशेषणार्थ: – meaning that the चकार: helps to distinguish this particular affix and enables पाणिनि: to refer to this affix specifically in the सूत्रम् 6-4-94 खचि ह्रस्वः – The penultimate letter (vowel) of a अङ्गम् is shortened when the अङ्गम् is followed by the affix “णि” which itself is followed by the affix खच्।

    2. Commenting on the comment (shown in question 1) made in the काशिका, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘एकानुबन्धग्रहणे द्व्यनुबन्धस्य न ग्रहणम्’ इति खशि न भविष्यतीत्यादिना वृत्तिग्रन्थस्यायुक्तत्वमाहुः। Please explain.
    Answer: Some say that the explanation (as discussed in answer 1) given in the काशिका is not appropriate. Why? Because even without using चकार: as a इत् in the affix ‘खच्’, पाणिनि: could have referred to this specific affix simply as ‘ख’। Objection: Simply using ‘ख’ would not work because ‘ख’ would include the affix ‘खश्’ as well. Response: This objection is not valid because we have the परिभाषा – ‘एकानुबन्धग्रहणे द्व्यनुबन्धस्य न ग्रहणम्’ – meaning that when a term (such as ‘ख’) having only one इत् letter is referred to, the reference does not include terms (such as ‘खश्’) which have two इत् letters. Hence ‘ख’ would not include the affix ‘खश्’।
    This is the argument presented by some grammarians against the reasoning given in the काशिका।

    3. Can you spot an affix यत् in the verses?
    Answer: The affix यत् is seen in the form रम्याम् derived from √रम् (भ्वादि-गणः, रमुँ क्रीडायाम् । रमँ इति माधवः, धातु-पाठः #१. ९८९).

    The कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् “रम्य” is derived as follows:
    रम् + यत् । By 3-1-98 पोरदुपधात्‌- The affix यत् may be used following a verbal root which ends in a letter of the प-वर्गः (“प्”, “फ्”, “ब्”, “भ्”, “म्”) and has a अकारः as its penultimate letter.

    = रम् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्य, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

    “रम्य” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “रम्या” as follows:

    रम्य + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌।
    = रम्य + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = रम्या । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।
    रम्या + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकार: of “अम्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = रम्याम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः।

    4. Which affix is used to derive the form ‘प्रिय’?
    Answer: The affix ‘‘ is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रिय”।

    प्रीणातीति प्रिय:। “प्रिय” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √प्री (प्रीञ् तर्पणे कान्तौ च ९. २).The derivation is as follows:
    प्री + । By 3-1-135 इगुपधज्ञाप्रीकिरः कः – The affix “क” may be used following
    i) a verbal root which has a penultimate इक् letter
    ii) the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३), √प्री (प्रीञ् तर्पणे कान्तौ च ९. २) or √कॄ (कॄ विक्षेपे (निक्षेपे) ६. १४५).
    Note: As per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌, the affix ‘क’ is used here in the sense of the agent of the action.
    = प्री + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The affix “क” is a कित्। Therefore 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops the गुणादेशः which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।
    = प्र् इयँङ् + अ । By 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ।
    = प्रिय । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

    “प्रिय” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ङीप् in the form ‘नदी’?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः prescribes the affix ङीप् in the form ‘नदी’।

    नदतीति नदी।

    The प्रातिपदिकम् “नद” is derived from the verbal root √नद् (णदँ अव्यक्ते शब्दे १. ५६).
    नद् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः।
    = नद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = नद । “नद” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    Since it is used in the feminine gender in the language, we have to add the appropriate feminine affix. The term ‘नदट्’ is listed in the पचादि-गणः। The टकारः in “नदट्” is a इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The टकारः being a इत् triggers 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः which prescribes the affix ङीप्।

    नद + ङीप् । By 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः – To denote the feminine gender, the affix ङीप् is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् which satisfies the following conditions:
    (i) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a अकार:
    (ii) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a non-secondary affix which is either टित् (has टकार: as a इत्) or is one of the following – ‘ढ’, ‘अण्’, ‘अञ्’, ‘द्वयसच्’, ‘दघ्नच्’, ‘मात्रच्’, ‘तयप्’, ‘ठक्’, ‘ठञ्’, ‘कञ्’ or ‘क्वरप्’।
    = नद + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। ‘नद’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
    = नद् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च, 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य।
    = नदी ।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “No one likes a person who does not speak kindly.” Paraphrase to “A person who does not speak kindly is not pleasing unto anyone.” Use √रुच् (रुचँ दीप्तावभिप्रीतौ च १. ८४७) for “to please.” To express the meaning of “unto” use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “anyone.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “one who speaks kindly.”
    Answer: य: न प्रियंवदः स: न कस्मैचित् रोचते = यो न प्रियंवदः स न कस्मैचिद्रोचते ।

    Easy Questions:

    1. Where has 7-3-105 आङि चापः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-3-105 आङि चापः has been used in the form सीतया (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “सीता”, तृतीया-एकवचनम्।)

    सीता + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = सीता + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सीते + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – “आप्” ending bases get एकारः as the substitute when followed by the affix “आङ्” (“टा”) or “ओस्”।
    = सीतया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।

    2. In which word in the verses has लँट् been used?
    Answer: A word in the verse where लँट् has been used is आभाति derived from √भा (भा दीप्तौ, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ४६).

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    भा + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट् – The affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.
    = भा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भा + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्।
    = भा + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भा + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = भाति । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः।

    “आङ्” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    आङ् + भाति = आभाति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

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