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Daily Archives: September 24, 2012

गायकाः mNp

Today we will look at the form गायकाः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.83.30

उन्नीय वक्त्रमुरुकुन्तलकुण्डलत्विड्गण्डस्थलं शिशिरहासकटाक्षमोक्षैः । राज्ञो निरीक्ष्य परितः शनकैर्मुरारेरंसेऽनुरक्तहृदया निदधे स्वमालाम् ॥ १०-८३-२९ ॥
तावन्मृदङ्गपटहाः शङ्खभेर्यानकादयः । निनेदुर्नटनर्तक्यो ननृतुर्गायका जगुः ॥ १०-८३-३० ॥

उरवः कुन्तला यस्मिन्, कुण्डलयोस्त्विषो ययोस्ते गण्डस्थले यस्मिंस्तच्च तच्च । शिशिरः संतापहरो हासो येषु तैः कटाक्षमोक्षैरपाङ्गमोक्षणविलासैः । अनुरक्तं हृदयं यस्याः साऽहम् ॥ २९ ॥ ३० ॥

Gita Press translation – Thick tresses of hair overhung my face and brilliant ear-rings added luster to my cheeks. Lifting up my face I glanced at the kings on all sides with enlivening smiles and sidelong looks and with a heart over-flowing with love gently placed the necklace round the neck of my Lord (29). The moment I placed the necklace round His neck, clay tomtoms, tabors, conchs, drums and kettledrums were sounded; male and female dancers began to dance, and songsters began to sing (in various tunes) (30).

“गायक” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √गै (गै शब्दे १. १०६५)

(1) गा + ण्वुल् । By 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ – The affixes “ण्वुल्” and “तृच्” may be used after a verbal root. By 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति – The ending एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by a आकार:, but not in the context where a शकार: which is a इत् follows.
Note: As per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌, the affixes “ण्वुल्” and “तृच्” are used in the sense of the agent of the action.

(2) गा + वु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: “वु” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

(3) गा + अक । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ – The affixes “यु” and “वु” are substituted respectively by “अन” and “अक”।

(4) गा युक् + अक । By 7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः – A अङ्गम् ending in a आकार: takes the augment युक् when followed by the affix चिण् or a कृत् affix which is either ञित् (has ञकार: as a इत्) or णित् (has णकार: as a इत्)।

As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the “युक्”-आगम: joins at the end of the अङ्गम् “गा”।

(5) गायक । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The उकार: in “युक्” is उच्चारणार्थ: (for pronunciation only.)

“गायक” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(1) गायक + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(2) गायक + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “जस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) गायकास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) गायकाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the affix “ण्वुल्” been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says णकारो वृद्ध्यर्थः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः the तत्त्वबोधिनी says ञ्णितीति किम्? पानीयम्। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the आकार-लोपः in the form निदधे? Where else has this सूत्रम् been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot a अभ्यास-लोपः in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who is the best singer among all of you?”

Easy Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the गुणादेशः in the form उरवः?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-104 ओसि च been used in the commentary?

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