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Daily Archives: September 28, 2012

योधाः mNp

Today we will look at the form योधाः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.59.15

तान्पीठमुख्याननयद्यमक्षयं निकृत्तशीर्षोरुभुजाङ्घ्रिवर्मणः । स्वानीकपानच्युतचक्रसायकैस्तथा निरस्तान्नरको धरासुतः ।। १०-५९-१४ ।।
निरीक्ष्य दुर्मर्षण आस्रवन्मदैर्गजैः पयोधिप्रभवैर्निराक्रमत् । दृष्ट्वा सभार्यं गरुडोपरि स्थितं सूर्योपरिष्टात्सतडिद्घनं यथा । कृष्णं स तस्मै व्यसृजच्छतघ्नीं योधाश्च सर्वे युगपच्च विव्यधुः।। १०-५९-१५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कृत्तानि शीर्षादीनि येषां तान् ।। १४ ।। शतघ्नीं शक्तिविशेषम् ।। १५ ।।

Gita Press translation – The Lord sent them (all), Pītha and others, to the abode of Death, their heads, thighs, arms, feet and armors having been lopped off or split open. Enraged to see (from the top of the fortress) the generals of his army having been killed by the discus (Sudarśana) and arrows of Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the immortal Lord,) the demon Naraka, son of Mother Earth, rushed forth with (an army of) sea-born elephants (whose descent was traceable from Airāvata, the king of elephants, the carrier of Indra.) Perceiving Śrī Kṛṣṇa with His spouse (Satyabhāmā) mounted on Garuḍa (the king of birds) like a cloud united with lightning and appearing above the sun, Naraka hurled at Him the javelin known by the name of Śataghnī; (nay), all his warriors too hit Him all at once (14-15).

युध्यत इति योधः।

“योध” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √युध् (युधँ सम्प्रहारे ४. ६९).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “योध” is derived as follows:

(1) युध् + अच् । By वार्तिकम् (under 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः) – अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः – The affix ‘अच्’ may be used after any verbal root (to denote the agent/doer of the action.)

(2) युध् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: “अ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

(3) योध् + अ । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च – When a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुकम् affix or a आर्धधातुकम् affix, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases:
i) The अङ्गम् ends in the augment ‘पुक्’। or
ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

‘योध’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(1) योध + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(2) योध + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “जस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) योधास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) योधाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the word योधाः been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says पचादिराकृतिगणः । “4-4-143 शिवशमरिष्टस्य करे”, “5-2-35 कर्मणि घटोऽठच्” इति सूत्रयोः करोतेर्घटेश्चाच्प्रयोगात् । अच्प्रत्यये परे यङ्लुग्विधानाच्च। Please explain.

3. Why is निराक्रमत् a आर्ष-प्रयोगः?

4. Can you spot an affix “श” in the verses?

5. Where does the सूत्रम् 6-1-37 न सम्प्रसारणे सम्प्रसारणम् find application in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Duryodhana said to his (own) warriors – “All of you should protect Bhīṣma.” Use the pronoun “स्व” for “own.”

Easy Questions:

1. Which अव्ययम् in the verses has been translated to “all at once.”

2. Where has this अव्ययम् (answer to question above) been used in the गीता?

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