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शिष्यम् mAs

Today we will look at the form शिष्यम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.20.13.

एष वा उत्तमश्लोको न जिहासति यद्यशः । हत्वा मैनां हरेद्युद्धे शयीत निहतो मया ॥ ८-२०-१३ ॥
श्रीशुक उवाच
एवमश्रद्धितं शिष्यमनादेशकरं गुरुः । शशाप दैवप्रहितः सत्यसन्धं मनस्विनम् ॥ ८-२०-१४ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यद्यदि यशो न जिहासति तर्हि युद्धेऽयं मां हत्वैनां भूमिं हरेच्छयीत वा । सम्यग्ज्ञातः सन्मम चित्ते शयीतेति वास्तवोऽर्थः ॥ १३ ॥

Gita Press translation – If he is really Lord Viṣṇu (of excellent fame), he would not forfeit his fair name (by playing me false) and might (as well) wrest the earth (from me, even if I were loth to part with it) after killing me in battle; or, being slain by me, he might lie in (eternal) sleep (if he is an impostor) (13). Śrī Śuka continued: Impelled by Providence, Śukrācārya (the preceptor) cursed (in the following words) his high-minded disciple (Bali), who, being true to his promise, had thus grown (apparently) irreverent (towards his preceptor) and refused to obey him (14).

“शिष्य” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √शास् (शासुँ अनुशिष्टौ २. ७०)

(1) शास् + क्यप् । By 3-1-109 एतिस्तुशास्वृदृजुषः क्यप्‌ – The affix क्यप्‌ may be used following the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०), √स्तु (ष्टुञ् स्तुतौ २. ३८), √शास् (शासुँ अनुशिष्टौ २. ७०), √वृ (वृञ् वरणे ५. ८), √दृ (दृङ् आदरे ६. १४७) or √जुष् (जुषीँ प्रीतिसेवनयोः ६. ८). Note: The affix “क्यप्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।

(2) शास् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) शिस् + य । By 6-4-34 शास इदङ्हलोः – The penultimate letter (आकारः) of the verbal root √शास् (शासुँ अनुशिष्टौ २. ७०) is replaced by a इकारः when followed by either –
i) the affix “अङ्” or
ii) an affix which begins with a consonant and is either कित् or ङित् (has ककारः or ङकारः as a इत्)।

Note: The affix “क्यप्” is a कित्। Therefore, 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops the गुणादेशः which may have been done by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च।

(4) शिष्य । By 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च – A सकार: belonging to the verbal root √शास् (शासुँ अनुशिष्टौ २. ७०) or √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) or √घस् (घसॢँ अदने १. ८१२ as well as the substitute “घसॢँ” which comes in place of अदँ भक्षणे २. १) is substituted by a षकार: when preceded by either a letter of the “इण्”-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग:।

“शिष्य” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(5) शिष्य + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकार: of “अम्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) शिष्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् “शिष्य” been used in Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-1-109 एतिस्तुशास्वृदृजुषः क्यप्‌ the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says ‘वृ’ इति वृञो ग्रहणं न वृङः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-34 शास इदङ्हलोः the काशिका says अङ्हलोरिति किम्? शासति। Please explain. Hint: Use the सूत्रम् 6-1-6 जक्षित्यादयः षट्। We have not yet discussed the सूत्रम् 6-1-6 in the class but we have discussed it in a prior comment.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-79 सन्यतः been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot an augment “सीयुट्” in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only one who respects the Guru is fit to be taught.” Use the verbal √दृ (दृङ् आदरे ६. १४७) preceded by the उपसर्गः “आङ्” for “to respect.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-34 द्वितीयाटौस्स्वेनः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the augment “नुँम्” in the form सन् (used in the commentary)? Note: सन् is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् derived from the प्रातिपदिकम् “सत्” which ends in the affix “शतृँ”।

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