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परिचङ्क्रमन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form परिचङ्क्रमन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.23.3.

यथा मेढीस्तम्भ आक्रमणपशवः संयोजितास्त्रिभिस्त्रिभिः सवनैर्यथास्थानं मण्डलानि चरन्त्येवं भगणा ग्रहादय एतस्मिन्नन्तर्बहिर्योगेन कालचक्र आयोजिता ध्रुवमेवावलम्ब्य वायुनोदीर्यमाणा आकल्पान्तं परिचङ्क्रमन्ति नभसि यथा मेघाः श्येनादयो वायुवशाः कर्मसारथयः परिवर्तन्ते एवं ज्योतिर्गणाः प्रकृतिपुरुषसंयोगानुगृहीताः कर्मनिर्मितगतयो भुवि न पतन्ति ॥ ५-२३-३ ॥

मेढीस्तम्भे बद्धा धान्याक्रमणपशवो बलीवर्दाः । कर्म सारथिः सहायो येषाम् ॥ ३ ॥

Gita Press translation – Just as (pairs of) oxen, trampling corn (in order to thresh it) while (remaining) tied to a post in the middle of a threshing-floor, walk round in their respective spheres, in three circles (gradually receding from that post,) so the host of luminaries including the planets – fastened as they are to the aforesaid wheel (revolving movement) of Time either in the inner circle (remote from the earth) or in the outer one (nearer the earth) and propelled by the wind (called Pravaha and referred to passage 8 of the Discourse XXI) – revolve round the pole-star as the pivot till the end of a Kalpa (the life-time of the three worlds) in three courses (northward, southward and along the equator.) (And just) as clouds and birds such as the hawk move about in the sky, suspended in the air and helped by their destiny (which keeps them floating in the air and prevents them from falling down,) so the hosts of luminaries (which are no other than particular Jīvas appearing in those form) – brought into existence by the union of matter and Spirit (occasioned by the destiny responsible for their assuming such forms) and reaping the fruit yielded by their (past) actions – (move about in the air and) do not fall to the ground (3).

परिचङ्क्रमन्ति is a frequentative/intensive form derived from √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५).

पुनः पुनर्भृशं वा क्रामन्ति = चङ्क्रमन्ति। Note: चङ्क्रमन्ति is a आर्ष-प्रयोगः। See note after step 13.

(1) क्रम् + यङ् । By 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् – The affix “यङ्” is prescribed after a consonant-beginning mono-syllabic verbal root to denote an action done repeatedly or intensely.
Note: As per 3-1-23 नित्यं कौटिल्ये गतौ – Following a verbal root used to denote motion, the affix “यङ्” is prescribed only in the sense of crookedness (and not in the sense of repetition or intensity.) But according to some grammarians (particularly नागेशः) the affix यङ् may also be used क्रियासमभिहारे (in the sense of repetition or intensity) after a verbal root (like √क्रम्) used to denote motion.

(2) क्रम् । By 2-4-74 यङोऽचि च – The affix यङ् takes the लुक् elision when followed by the affix “अच्”। The use of च in the सूत्रम् indicates that the affix “यङ्” takes the लुक् elision variously (irregularly) even when not followed by the affix “अच्”।
Note: There is no change in meaning caused by this लुक् elision of the affix “यङ्”। Both “यङ्” and “यङ्-लुक्” convey the same meaning.
Note: The term “अच्” used in this सूत्रम् 2-4-74 refers to the affix “अच्” and not the प्रत्याहारः “अच्” (vowel.)
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-61 प्रत्ययस्य लुक्श्लुलुपः the entire affix “यङ्” is elided.

(3) क्रम् क्रम् । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.
Note: Even though the यङ्-प्रत्ययः is elided, it is considered as following the अङ्गम् by 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्।

(4) च्रम् क्रम् । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(5) च क्रम् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(6) चं क्रम् । By 7-4-85 नुगतोऽनुनासिकान्तस्य – When followed by either the affix “यङ्” or a लुक् elided affix “यङ्”, the reduplicate (अभ्यासः) takes the augment “नुक्” provided the following conditions are satisfied : i) the अभ्यासः belongs to a अङ्गम् ending in a nasal consonant and ii) the अभ्यासः ends in a अकारः।

Note: नुकानुस्वारो लक्ष्यते – The augment “नुक्” prescribed in the section from 7-4-85 to 7-4-87 stands for a अनुस्वारः।

(7) चङ्क्रम्/चंक्रम् । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य – When an अनुस्वारः occurs at the end of a पदम् and is followed by a यय् letter, then it is optionally substituted by a letter which is सवर्ण: with that following यय् letter.
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 7-4-85), पदान्तवच्चेति वक्तव्यम् – The augment अनुस्वारः prescribed in the section from 7-4-85 to 7-4-87 should be treated as if it is at the end of a पदम्। Note: This allows 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य to apply.

“चङ्क्रम्” gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः with the help of the परिभाषा “एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत्” – A thing is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking in a part.
Alternately, terms ending in यङ्-लुक् get the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा on the basis of the fact that the गणसूत्रम् – चर्करीतं च (चर्करीतम् is an ancient name for a धातुः ending in यङ्-लुक्) is placed in the धातु-पाठः (in the अदादि-गणः)। Hence “चङ्क्रम्” gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा।

Note: As per the गणसूत्रम् “चर्करीतं च” – A धातुः ending in यङ्-लुक् is also considered to belong to the अदादि-गणः and takes परस्मैपदम् affixes only (in कर्तरि प्रयोगः।) Therefore in कर्तरि प्रयोगः, “चङ्क्रम्” takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

(8) चङ्क्रम् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(9) चङ्क्रम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) चङ्क्रम् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(11) चङ्क्रम् + शप् + झि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. Note: As per the गणसूत्रम् “चर्करीतं च” the धातुः “चङ्क्रम्” is considered to belong to the अदादि-गणः। This allows 2-4-72 to apply in the next step.

(12) चङ्क्रम् + झि । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः – The शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(13) चङ्क्रमन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।
Note: चङ्क्रमन्ति is a आर्ष-प्रयोगः। Instead of 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, the सूत्रम् 7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌ should have applied here giving the grammatically correct form चङ्क्रमति।

“परि” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
परि + चङ्क्रमन्ति = परिचङ्क्रमन्ति ।


1. Where has the verbal root √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-74 यङोऽचि च the काशिका says चकारेण बहुलग्रहणमनुकृष्यते, न तु छन्दसीति। तेन छन्दसि भाषायां च यङो लुग् भवति। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-85 नुगतोऽनुनासिकान्तस्य the काशिका says अत इति किम्? तेतिम्यते। Please explain.

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-85 the काशिका says अनुनासिकान्तस्येति किम्? पापच्यते। Please explain.

5. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-85 the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says तपरत्वसामर्थ्याद्भूतपूर्वदीर्घस्यापि न। ‘भामँ’ क्रोधे। बाभाम्यते। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The moon revolves around the earth.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘परितस्’ for “around” and use द्वितीया-विभक्तिः with “the earth”.

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् been used in the verses?

2. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is always used in the plural?

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