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Daily Archives: July 20, 2011

द्वेष्टि 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form द्वेष्टि 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-2-2.

कस्तं चराचरगुरुं निर्वैरं शान्तविग्रहम् ।
आत्मारामं कथं द्वेष्टि जगतो दैवतं महत् ।। ४-२-२ ।।

Gita Press translation “Who would bear enmity to Him, the Teacher of the whole animate and inanimate creation, who bears enmity to none, is possessed of a tranquil personality, delights in His own Self and is the highest object of veneration to the (whole) universe?”

द्वेष्टि is derived from the धातुः √द्विष् (द्विषँ अप्रीतौ, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ३)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √द्विष्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the षकार:। This इत् letter has a स्वरित-स्वर:। Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √द्विष्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √द्विष्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√द्विष्” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √द्विष्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) द्विष् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) द्विष् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) द्विष् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) द्विष् + शप् + तिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) द्विष् + तिप् । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(6) द्विष् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) द्वेष् + ति । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः। or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) द्वेष्टि । टकारादेशः by 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः


1. Where is the form द्वेष्टि used in the गीता?

2. In which सूत्रम् (that we have studied) does पाणिनि: specifically mention the प्रातिपदिकम् “महत्”? Why did that सूत्रम् not apply in the form “महत्” used in this verse? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

3. In which लकार: is the प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम् form same as the मध्यम-पुरुष-एकवचनम् form of √द्विष् ?
i. लँट्
ii. लोँट्
iii. लङ्
iv. (विधि)लिँङ्

4. Where has 7-2-103 किमः कः been used in the verse? Is 7-2-103 किमः कः a अपवाद: for 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः?

5. How did the इकार: in “द्विष्” get the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा (which is required to apply 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च in step 7) even though there is a संयोग: prior to it?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Peace comes to him who doesn’t hate anyone.” Use √गम् (गमॢँ – [गतौ] १. ११३७) with the उपसर्ग: “उप” for “to come to.” Use the appropriate forms of “यत्”/”तत्”।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a ङस्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

2. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (that we have studied) which is a निषेध-सूत्रम् (negation rule) for 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः?

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