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Daily Archives: July 26, 2011

विदुः 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form विदुः 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb11-30-38.

यस्यात्मयोगरचितं न विदुर्विरिञ्चो रुद्रादयोऽस्य तनयाः पतयो गिरां ये ।
त्वन्मायया पिहितदृष्टय एतदञ्जः किं तस्य ते वयमसद्गतयो गृणीमः ।। ११-३०-३८ ।।

Gita Press translation “How can we of impious birth make any observation directly about this gesture (in the shape of the wholesale destruction of Yadu’s race) of Yours as Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the work of whose handmaid (Māyā) even Brahmā (the creator), his sons, Rudra and others, and the seers of Veda whose vision had been obscured by Your Māyā, are unable to know.”

विदुः is derived from the धातुः √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. ५९)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्

In the धातु-पाठः, the √विद्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the दकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the √विद्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √विद्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √विद्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) विद् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) विद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) विद् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) विद् + उस् । By 3-4-83 विदो लटो वा, The affixes (तिप्, तस् etc.) of लँट् following the verbal root √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने २. ५९ ) optionally get the nine affixes णल्, अतुस् etc., as replacements respectively.
Note: The nine परस्‍मैपद-प्रत्यया: [तिप्, तस्, झि, सिप्, थस्, थ, मिप्, वस्, मस्] of लँट् optionally get णल्, अतुस्, उस्, थल्, अथुस्, अ, णल्, व, म as replacements. As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions are done respectively.
उस् also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of उस् from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) विद् + शप् + उस् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(6) विद् + उस् । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।
Note: Since उस् is a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: and is अपित् (does not have पकार: as an इत्, it becomes ङिद्वत् (as if it has ङकार: as an इत्) by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्। Due to this, 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च stops the गुणादेश: for the इकार: (of the अङ्गम् “विद्”) which would have been done by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च

(7) विदुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where is 3-4-83 विदो लटो वा used twice in one verse in the गीता?

2. (Since 3-4-83 विदो लटो वा is optional), what would be the alternate final form in this example?

3. In the conjugation table of √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने, धातु-पाठः २. ५९) in लँट् which form is repeated (appears more than once)?

4. Which adverb used in the verse has been translated to “directly”?

5. Where is 7-2-113 हलि लोपः used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Nobody knows everything.”

Easy questions:

1. Where is 7-3-109 जसि च used in the verse?

2. Does the प्रातिपदिकम् “पति” have the घि-सञ्ज्ञा in the verse?

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