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याहि 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form याहि 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-16-60.

श्रीशुक उवाच
इत्याकर्ण्य वचः प्राह भगवान्कार्यमानुषः ।
नात्र स्थेयं त्वया सर्प समुद्रं याहि मा चिरम् ।
स्वज्ञात्यपत्यदाराढ्यो गोनृभिर्भुज्यते नदी ।। १०-१६-६० ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka went on : Hearing this (prayer), the almighty Lord, who had assumed a human semblance on purpose replied, “You ought not to stay here, O serpent! Accompanied by your kinsfolk, progeny and wives, proceed you to the ocean without delay; let the river be used by the bovine race and human beings.”

याहि is derived from the धातुः √या (या प्रापणे, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. ४४)

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्

In the धातु-पाठः, the √या-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √या-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √या-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is मध्यम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) या + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च , the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) या + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) या + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) या + सि। अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्

(5) या + हि । By 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च , “सि” of लोँट् is substituted by “हि” and it is an अपित्। हि also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(6) या + शप् + हि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(7) याहि । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।


1. Where has a तिङन्तं रूपम् (verbal form) of √या (या प्रापणे, धातु-पाठः २. ४४) been used four times in the same verse in the गीता?

2. We have studied two rules which prescribe a लुक् elision of the हि-प्रत्यय:। Which are they and why didn’t either of them apply in this example?

3. Where has 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः been used in the verse?

4. Why doesn’t the ending इकार: of the “हि”-प्रत्यय: get the उकारादेश: by 3-4-86 एरुः?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Go home without delay.” Use some words from the verse for “without delay.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let the cows eat the grass.” Paraphrase to passive – “Let the grass be eaten by the cows.” Use √भुज् (भुजँ पालनाभ्यवहारयोः ७. १७) for “to eat.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “तृण” for “grass.”

Easy questions:

1. Which term used in the verse has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. Where has the “युष्मद्”-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in the verse?

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