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Daily Archives: July 18, 2011

ईयते 3Ps-लँट्

Today we will look at the form ईयते 3Ps-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3-32-26.

ज्ञानमात्रं परं ब्रह्म परमात्मेश्वरः पुमान्।
दृश्यादिभिः पृथग्भावैर्भगवानेक ईयते ।। ३-३२-२६ ।।

Gita Press translation “The Lord is nothing but absolute Consciousness and is the same as the Transcendental Reality (Brahma), the Supreme Spirit, the Ruler of all and the Highest Person.Though One, He appears in diverse forms as the seer, the object seen, the means of sight and so on.”

ईयते is derived from the धातुः √इ (इण् गतौ, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ४०)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्मणि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

By 1-3-13 भावकर्मणोः, when denoting the action of the verb (भावे) or the object of the verb (कर्मणि), आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः are used in the place of a लकार:। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So in कर्मणि प्रयोगः, only one of these nine प्रत्यया: can be used. Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “त”।

(1) इ + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) इ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) इ + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) इ + ते । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, the टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets एकारः as the replacement.

(5) इ + यक् + ते । By 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक्, the यक्-प्रत्ययः follows a धातुः when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः follows denoting the action of the verb (भावे) or the object of the verb (कर्मणि)। यक् gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(6) इयते । By 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) ईयते । By 7-4-25 अकृत्सार्वधातुकयोर्दीर्घः, the ending vowel of an अङ्गम् is elongated when followed by a प्रत्ययः which begins with a यकार:, as long as the प्रत्यय: neither has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा nor the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। See question 3.


1. Can you spot two places where the यक्-प्रत्यय: has been used in the last ten verses of Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-25 अकृत्सार्वधातुकयोर्दीर्घः, the काशिका says- असार्वधातुके इति किम्? चिनुयात्। Please explain.

3. Why doesn’t the यक्-प्रत्यय: (prescribed by 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक्) get the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा?

4. Where has 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“It appears that you have not read the Geeta.” Paraphrase this to “It appears that the Geeta has not been read by you.” Use √पठ् (पठँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ३८१) for “to read ” and use √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) in the passive with the उपसर्ग: “प्रति” for “to appear.” Use the अव्ययम् “इति” (end-quote) to convey the meaning of “that.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There is no happiness for one who does not follow Dharma.” Use √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२) for “is” (“to exist”) and use √चर् (चरँ गत्यर्थ: १. ६४०) with the उपसर्ग: “अनु” for “to follow.” Use the appropriate forms of the pronouns “यत्”/”तत्”।

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a “असुँङ्”-आदेश: in the verse?

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