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स्तुवन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form स्तुवन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb8-4-25.

ये मां स्तुवन्त्यनेनाङ्ग प्रतिबुध्य निशात्यये ।
तेषां प्राणात्यये चाहं ददामि विपुलां गतिम् ।। ८-४-२५ ।।

Gita Press translation “And to them, who at the close of night (the commencement of the period known as the Brahma Muhūrta, which extends over two hours and twenty-four minutes before sunrise), extol Me by means of this hymn (mentally recited by you), O dear one, I vouchsafe unclouded memory (of Myself) at the moment of death.”

स्तुवन्ति is derived from the धातुः √स्तु (ष्टुञ् स्तुतौ, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ३८)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

The धातुः “ष्टुञ्” has an initial षकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः , there is the substitution of सकारः in the place of the initial षकारः of a धातुः। And as per the न्यायः “निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपाय:” (when a cause is gone, its effect is also gone) the टकार-आदेशः for the तकारः, which has come in by 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः, because of the presence of the षकारः, will now be reverted to the तकारः since the cause for the टकारादेश: no longer exists. So we now have “स्तुञ्”।

The  ञकार: gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √स्तु-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √स्तु-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√स्तु” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √स्तु-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √स्तु-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) स्तु + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) स्तु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) स्तु + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) स्तु + शप् + झि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) स्तु + झि । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः। Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “झि” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च to prevent 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(6) स्तु + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः,“अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(7) स्तुवन्ति । By 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियँङुवँङौ, if a प्रत्यय: beginning with an अच् (vowel) follows, then the (ending letter of the) अङ्गम् is replaced by इयँङ्/उवँङ् in the following three cases – (1) If the अङ्गम् ends in the प्रत्यय: “श्नु” or (2) If the अङ्गम् ends in the इवर्ण: or उवर्ण: of a धातु: or (3) If the अङ्गम् is the word “भ्रू”।
In the present example, the ending उकार: of the अङ्गम् “स्तु” is part of a धातु:। Hence 6-4-77 applies. See question 2.


1. Where is स्तुवन्ति used in the गीता?

2. In the absence of 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियँङुवँङौ, which सूत्रम् would have applied in step 7 to give which (undesired) form?

3. Which अव्ययम् in the verse translates to “O dear one”?

4. Where has 7-2-112 अनाप्यकः been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should always praise the Lord.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why don’t people praise you?” Paraphrase to passive “Why are you not praised by people?” Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a सुँट्-आगम: in the verse?

2. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

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