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प्रग्रहान् mAp

Today we will look at the form प्रग्रहान् mAp from श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका on श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.1.30.

तस्यां तु कर्हिचिच्छौरिर्वसुदेवः कृतोद्वहः । देवक्या सूर्यया सार्धं प्रयाणे रथमारुहत् ।। १०-१-२९ ।।
उग्रसेनसुतः कंसः स्वसुः प्रियचिकीर्षया । रश्मीन्हयानां जग्राह रौक्मै रथशतैर्वृतः ।। १०-१-३० ।।

सूर्यया नवोढया । प्रयाणे प्रयाणार्थम् ।। २९ ।। रश्मीन् प्रग्रहान् ।। ३० ।।

Gita Press translation – Having gone through his wedding ceremony indeed in that city, one day, Vasudeva, son of Śūra (a nobleman of the kingdom of Mathurā), mounted the chariot along with his newly wedded wife, Devakī, while departing (for his home.) (29) Surrounded by hundreds of chariots plated with gold, Prince Kaṁsa, the (eldest) son of King Ugrasena (the then ruler of Mathurā) held the reins of the horses (assumed the role of a charioteer) in order to oblige his cousin (Devakī) (30).

प्रगृह्यत इति (प्रगृह्यते इति) प्रग्रह:/प्रग्राह:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रग्रह/प्रग्राह’ (meaning ‘rein’) is derived from the verbal root √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९.७१) along with the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’।

First let us derive the form ‘प्रग्रह’ using the affix अप् –

(1) प्र ग्रह् + अप् । By 3-3-58 ग्रहवृदृनिश्चिगमश्च – Following any one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix अप् is be used to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name
(i) √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९.७१)
(ii) √वृ (वृञ् वरणे ५. ८, वृङ् सम्भक्तौ ९. ४५)
(iii) √दृ (दृङ् आदरे ६. १४७)
(iv) √चि (चिञ् चयने ५. ५) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘निस्’
(v) √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७)

See question 2.

(2) प्र ग्रह् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= प्रग्रह ।

Now let us derive the optional form ‘प्रग्राह’ using the affix घञ् –

(3) प्र ग्रह् + घञ् । By 3-3-53 रश्मौ च – The affix घञ् may optionally be used following the verbal root √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९.७१) – provided the verbal root is in conjunction with the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ and the derived word denotes ‘rein.’

See question 3.

(4) प्र ग्रह् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) प्र ग्राह् + अ = प्रग्राह । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

‘प्रग्रह/प्रग्राह’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्

(6) प्रग्रह + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) प्रग्रह + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(8) प्रग्रहास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(9) प्रग्रहान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter “स्” of the affix “शस्” follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter “न्”।


1. Where has the affix अप् been used with the verbal root √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९.७१) in Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the affix अप् prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-58 ग्रहवृदृनिश्चिगमश्च (used in step 1) the काशिका says – घञोऽपवादः। निश्चिनोतेस्त्वचोऽपवादः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-53 रश्मौ च (used in step 3) the काशिका says – ग्रहो विभाषा प्र इति वर्तते। Please explain.

4. The form आरुहत् is derived (from the verbal root √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) preceded by the उपसर्ग:’आङ्’) using the substitution ‘अङ्’ (in place of ‘च्लि’)। As per the सूत्रम् 3-1-59 कृमृदृरुहिभ्यश्छन्दसि (which we have not studied) this substitution is only allowed छन्दसि – in the Veda. What would be the correct form in the classical language?

5. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऊढ’ (used as part of the compound नवोढया in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa sat in Arjuna’s chariot holding the reins of the white horses.” Use the verbal root √विश् (विशँ प्रवेशने ६. १६०) with the उपसर्ग: ‘उप’ for ‘to sit.’ Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘श्वेत’ for ‘white.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

2. In the verses can you spot a place where the letter ‘र्’ has been elided?

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