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त्यागे mLs

Today we will look at the form त्यागे mLs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.1.19.

विष्णुना सदृशो वीर्ये सोमवत्प्रियदर्शनः । कालाग्निसदृशः क्रोधे क्षमया पृथिवीसमः ।। १-१-१८ ।।
धनदेन समस्त्यागे सत्ये धर्म इवापरः । तमेवङ्गुणसम्पन्नं रामं सत्यपराक्रमम् ।। १-१-१९ ।।
ज्येष्ठं ज्येष्ठगुणैर्युक्तं प्रियं दशरथः सुतम् । प्रकृतीनां हितैर्युक्तं प्रकृतिप्रियकाम्यया ।। १-१-२० ।।
यौवराज्येन संयोक्तुमैच्छत्प्रीत्या महीपतिः ।। first half of verse १-१-२१ ।।

Gita Press translation – He is a replica of Lord Viṣṇu in prowess and is pleasing of aspect as the moon. In (show of) anger he resembles the destructive fire at the end of creation and is a counterpart of Mother Earth in forbearance (18). He equals Kubera (the god of riches, the bestower of wealth) in liberality and is another Dharma (the god of piety) as it were in point of truthfulness. With intent to gratify the people, the king (Emperor Daśaratha) lovingly sought to invest with the office of Regent, his beloved son, Śrī Rāma, who possessed unfailing prowess and was adorned with the aforesaid qualities, who was not only the eldest (of his four sons in point of age) but was also endowed with the highest virtues and devoted to the interests of the people (verses 19,20 and first half of verse 21).

त्यजनं त्यागः।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्याग’ is derived from the verbal root √त्यज् (त्यजँ हानौ १. ११४१).

The ending अकार: of ‘त्यजँ’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) त्यज् + घञ् । By 3-3-18 भावे – The affix घञ् may be used following a verbal root to denote the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state.

(2) त्यज् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) त्यग् + अ । By 7-3-52 चजोः कु घिण्ण्यतोः – A चकारः or a जकारः is replaced by a letter of the क-वर्गः when followed by either –
i) an affix which has घकारः as a इत् or
ii) the affix ण्यत्।

(4) त्याग् + अ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

= त्याग ।

‘त्याग’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-एकवचनम्

(5) त्याग + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) त्याग + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) त्यागे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः


1. Where has the word त्यागे been used in the गीता?

2. Can you recall a वार्तिकम् in which कात्यायन: specifically mentions the verbal root √त्यज् (त्यजँ हानौ १. ११४१)?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix काम्यच् in the form प्रकृतिप्रियकाम्यया?

4. In the verses can you spot two words in which the affix ‘क’ has been used?

5. The use of the affix तुमुँन् in the form संयोक्तुम् used in the verses is justified by which सूत्रम्?
(i) 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌
(ii) 3-3-158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन्
(iii) 3-3-167 कालसमयवेलासु तुमुन्
(iv) 3-4-65 शकधृषज्ञाग्लाघटरभलभक्रमसहार्हास्त्यर्थेषु तुमुन्

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Man obtains peace only by renunciation.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-72 आडजादीनाम् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ना’ in the form विष्णुना?

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