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Daily Archives: March 14, 2013


Today we will look at the form उपाध्यायम् mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.74.8.

कच्चिद्विनयसम्पन्नः कुलपुत्रो बहुश्रुतः । अनसूयुरनुद्रष्टा सत्कृतस्ते पुरोहितः ।। २-१००-११ ।।
कच्चिदग्निषु ते युक्तो विधिज्ञो मतिमानृजुः । हुतं च होष्यमाणं च काले वेदयते सदा ।। २-१००-१२ ।।
कच्चिद् देवान् पितॄन् भृत्यान् गुरून् पितृसमानपि । वृद्धांश्च तात वैद्यांश्च ब्राह्मणांश्चाभिमन्यसे ।। २-१००-१३ ।।
इष्वस्त्रवरसम्पन्नमर्थशास्त्रविशारदम् | सुधन्वानमुपाध्यायं कच्चित्त्वं तात मन्यसे ।। २-१००-१४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Is your (personal) priest (a son of Vasiṣṭha), who is rich in humility, born of a noble pedigree, a man of extensive learning, free from spite and skilled in all pious and sacred rites – treated with honor (by you)? (11) Does the priest employed by you to look after the sacred fires, who is well-versed in the procedure of conducting sacrificial performances, is endowed with intelligence and guileless of disposition, invariably inform you in time about a sacred fire having (already) been or going to be fed with oblations? (12) Do you hold in high esteem gods and manes, dependents, elders, kinsmen of your father’s age, the aged, the physicians as well as the Brāhmaṇas, my darling? (13) Do you respect Sudhanvā, your teacher (of the science of archery), who is equipped with knowledge relating to the use of excellent arrows (discharged without uttering spells) and missiles (propelled with the utterance of spells) and well-versed in political economy? (14)

उपेत्यास्मादधीते (उपेत्य अस्माद् अधीते) = उपाध्याय:। He from whom one studies having approached (him.) Hence it means ‘a teacher.’

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उपाध्याय’ is derived from the verbal root √इ (इङ् अध्ययने | नित्यमधिपूर्वः २. ४१) with the उसर्ग: ‘उप’ and ‘अधि’।

The ending ङकारः of ‘इङ्’ is a इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) उप अधि इ + घञ् । By 3-3-21 इङश्च – The affix घञ् may be used following the verbal root √इ (इङ् अध्ययने | नित्यमधिपूर्वः २. ४१) to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.

See question 2.

(2) उप अधि इ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) उप अधि ऐ + अ । By 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति – A vowel ending अङ्गम् gets a वृद्धिः substitute, when followed by a प्रत्ययः that has ञकारः or a णकारः as an indicatory letter.

(4) उप अधि आय् + अ । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(5) उप अध्याय । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(6) उपाध्याय । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

‘उपाध्याय’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(5) उपाध्याय + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) उपाध्यायम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Where has the verbal root √इ (इङ् अध्ययने | नित्यमधिपूर्वः २. ४१) been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. The affix घञ् prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-21 इङश्च (used in step 1) is a अपवाद: (exception) to which affix?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution ‘हि’ in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हित’ (used as part of the compound पुरोहितः)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the affix तृच् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
‘We should tell the teacher that these questions are too complicated!’ Paraphrase to ‘It should be told by us to the teacher that these questions are too complicated!’ Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अतिजटिल’ for ‘too complicated.’ Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with ‘teacher.’ Use a कृत्य-प्रत्यय: to express the meaning of ‘it should be told.’

Easy questions:

1. In how many words in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used?

2. Which गण-सूत्रम् justifies the use of a आत्मनेपदम् affix in the form वेदयते?

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