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पर्यायेण mIs

Today we will look at the form पर्यायेण mIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.26.37.

एवंविधा नरका यमालये सन्ति शतशः सहस्रशस्तेषु सर्वेषु च सर्व एवाधर्मवर्तिनो ये केचिदिहोदिता अनुदिताश्चावनिपते पर्यायेण विशन्ति तथैव धर्मानुवर्तिन इतरत्र इह तु पुनर्भवे त
उभयशेषाभ्यां निविशन्ति ।। ५-२६-३७ ।।

इतरत्र स्वर्गादौ । इह मर्त्यलोके पुनर्भवे पुनर्जन्मनिमित्तम्। उभयोर्धर्माधर्मयोः शेषाभ्याम् ।। ३७ ।।

Gita Press translation – There are hundreds and thousands of such infernal spots in the abode of Yama; and all those treading the path of unrighteousness – whosoever have been spoken of here as well as those that have been left unmentioned – enter all these spots one after another, O ruler of the earth. And even so those following the path of virtue enter other regions (heaven etc.); and with the residue of both virtue and sin (when the fruit of the bulk of their stock has been reaped) they both (the virtuous as well as the sinful) return to this land of Bhāratavarṣa (the land of rebirth) (37).

अनुपात्यय: (क्रमप्राप्तस्य अनतिपात:) पर्याय:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पर्याय’ is derived from the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) along with the उपसर्गः ‘परि’।

(1) परि इ + घञ् । By 3-3-38 परावनुपात्यय इणः – To derive a word meaning अनुपात्यय: (turn/regular succession), the affix घञ् may be used following the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) when in conjunction with उपसर्ग: ‘परि’।

(2) परि इ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) परि ऐ + अ । By 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति – A vowel ending अङ्गम् gets a वृद्धिः substitute, when followed by a प्रत्ययः that has ञकारः or a णकारः as an indicatory letter.

(4) परि आय् + अ । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(5) पर्याय । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

‘पर्याय’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

‘पर्याय’ is a पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is तृतीया-एकवचनम्

(6) पर्याय + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) पर्याय + इन । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 7-1-12 टाङसिँङसामिनात्स्या: – Following a अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:, the affixes “टा”, “ङसिँ” and “ङस्” are replaced respectively by “इन”, “आत्” and “स्य”।

(8) पर्यायेन । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

(9) पर्यायेण । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि


1. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-38 परावनुपात्यय इणः (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अनुपात्यये किम्? कालस्य पर्यय:। अतिपात इत्यर्थ:। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति been used in the verses?

5. Which उणादि-प्रत्यय: is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्मन्’ (used in the compound पुनर्जन्मनिमित्तम् in the commentary)? (Search the following document for ‘जन्म’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/notes-for-saturday-class/उणादिप्रकरणम्/)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the forest, Śrī Rāma visited (saw) all the sages, one after another.”

Easy questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a place where a सन्धि-कार्यम् has not been done?

2. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the commentary is used only in the dual (no singular or plural)?


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