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पितरः mNp

Today we will look at the form पितरः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.18.8.

प्रीताश्चाप्सरसोऽनृत्यन्गन्धर्वप्रवरा जगुः । तुष्टुवुर्मुनयो देवा मनवः पितरोऽग्नयः ।। ८-१८-८ ।।
सिद्धविद्याधरगणाः सकिम्पुरुषकिन्नराः । चारणा यक्षरक्षांसि सुपर्णा भुजगोत्तमाः ।। ८-१८-९ ।।

देवा मनव इत्यादीनां कुसुमैः समवाकिरन्निति तृतीयेनान्वयः ।। ८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Full of joy, Apsarās danced and the chief of the Gandharvas sang; while sages and gods, the Manus, the manes and the fire-gods, hosts of Siddhas and Vidyādharas along with Kimpuruṣas and Kinnaras, as well as Cāraṇas, Yakṣas and Rākṣasas, Suparṇas (the secretary birds) and the foremost of Nāgas (too) uttered praises (8-9).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृ’ is derived from the verbal root √पा (पा रक्षणे २. ५१).

(1) पा + तृच् । By the उणादि-सूत्रम् 2-95 नप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृहॊतृपोतृभ्रातृजामातृमातृपितृदुहितृ – The following ten words ending in the affix ‘तृच्’ are given as ready-made forms, viz., ‘नप्तृ’ (a grandson), ‘नेष्टृ’ (one of the chief officiating priests at a Soma sacrifice), ‘त्वष्टृ’ (name of a Vedic God), ‘होतृ’ (a sacrificial priest), ‘पोतृ’ (one of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice), ‘भ्रातृ’ (brother), ‘जामातृ’ (son-in-law), ‘मातृ’ (mother), ‘पितृ’ (father) and ‘दुहितृ’ (daughter).
Note: By the सूत्रम् 3-4-75 ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः – The affixes उण् etc may be used to denote a sense other than the dative or the ablative. Here the affix ‘तृच्’ is used कर्तरि – to denote the agent of the action. पातीति (पाति इति) पिता।

(2) पा + तृ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पि + तृ । The आकारः of the verbal root √पा is irregularly replaced by a इकारः in order to get the form ‘पितृ’ given in the उणादि-सूत्रम् 2-95 नप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृहॊतृपोतृभ्रातृजामातृमातृपितृदुहितृ

‘पितृ’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(4) पितृ + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘जस्’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply in step 6.

(5) पितृ + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) पितर् + अस् । 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending ऋकार: of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix “ङि” (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(7) पितरः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृ’ been used in Chapter Ten of the गीता?

2. Which उणादि-सूत्रम् is used for the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्नि’?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘अच्’ in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भुजग’ (used as part of the compound भुजगोत्तमाः in the verses)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My father never drinks alcohol. I don’t either.” Paraphrase to “My father never drinks alcohol. I also don’t.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My (two) parents live in India.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृ’ in the dual for ‘parents.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-100 ॠत इद्धातोः been used in the commentary?

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