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वोढुम् ind

Today we will look at the form वोढुम् ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.10.4.

न वयं नरदेव प्रमत्ता भवन्नियमानुपथाः साध्वेव वहामः । अयमधुनैव नियुक्तोऽपि न द्रुतं व्रजति नानेन सह वोढुमु ह वयं पारयाम इति ।। ५-१०-४ ।।
सांसर्गिको दोष एव नूनमेकस्यापि सर्वेषां सांसर्गिकाणां भवितुमर्हतीति निश्चित्य निशम्य कृपणवचो राजा रहूगण उपासितवृद्धोऽपि निसर्गेण बलात्कृत ईषदुत्थितमन्युरविस्पष्टब्रह्मतेजसं जातवेदसमिव रजसावृतमतिराह ।। ५-१०-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
भवन्नियमानुपथास्त्वदाज्ञानुवर्तिनः । न पारयामो न शक्नुमः ।। ४ ।। कृपणानां वचो निशम्य सांसर्गिकः संसर्गनिमित्त एकस्यापि दोषः सर्वेषामेव भवितुमर्हतीति निश्चित्य रहूगण आहेत्यन्वयः । कथंभूतः । उपासिता वृद्धा येन सोऽपि स्वभावेन बलात्परवशः कृतः सन् । कथंभूतं प्रत्याह । न विस्पष्टं ब्रह्मतेजो यस्मिन् । भस्मना छन्नमग्निमिव स्थितम् ।। ५ ।।

Gita Press translation – We are not remiss, O ruler of men; (strictly) obeying your commands, we bear the palanquin quite well. Though engaged just now, this (new) man does not walk quickly. We are, therefore, unable to bear the palanquin with him (4). Hearing (their) piteous words, king Rahūgaṇa concluded that the fault appearing in one through contact (with others) is sure to become the fault of all who are connected with that person. Even though he had sat at the feet of sages, his Kṣatriya spirit prevailed over him. His judgement having been clouded by the element of Rajas, he felt a bit enraged and spoke (ironically as follows) to that Brāhmaṇa, whose spiritual glory was not distinctly perceived like (brilliance of) fire (embers) covered with ashes (5).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वोढुम्’ is derived from the verbal root √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९). The अकारः at the end of “वहँ” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(1) वह् + तुमुँन् । By 3-4-65 शकधृषज्ञाग्लाघटरभलभक्रमसहार्हास्त्यर्थेषु तुमुन् – The affix तुमुँन् may be used following a verbal root when in conjunction with any one of the following verbal roots or their synonyms
(i) √शक् (शकॢँ शक्तौ ५. १७)
(ii) √धृष् (ञिधृषाँ प्रागल्भ्ये ५. २५)
(iii) √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३)
(iv) √ग्लै (ग्लै हर्षक्षये १. १०५१)
(v) √घट् (घटँ चेष्टायाम् १. ८६७)
(vi) √रभ् (रभँ राभस्ये १. ११२९)
(vii) √लभ् (डुलभँष् प्राप्तौ १. ११३०)
(viii) √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५)
(ix) √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८)
(x) √अर्ह् (अर्हँ पूजायाम् १. ८४१)
(xi) √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०)

पारयामः is synonymous with शक्नुमः। This allows 3-4-65 to apply here.

Note: अर्थग्रहणमस्तिनैव सम्बध्यते। अनन्तरत्वात्। (from सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) The word ‘अर्थ’ in this सूत्रम् connects only with ‘अस्ति’ and not with the other ten verbal roots listed in the सूत्रम्। As per this interpretation synonyms of only √अस् qualify as a उपपदम्। Synonyms of any of the other ten verbal roots don’t qualify. But Apte does not agree with this view because it would mean disqualifying many standard usages of good authors. For example कालिदास: has used न पारयाम: (synonymous with शक्नुम:) निवेदयितुम् in शाकुन्तलम् and न च वेद (synonymous with जानाति) सम्यग्द्रष्टुं न सा in रघुवंशम्। So in order to justify these usages of तुमुँन् Apte interprets ‘अर्थ’ as connecting with all the verbal roots and not just ‘अस्ति’। The translation of the सूत्रम् given above is as per Apte’s view.

(2) वह् + तुम् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) वढ् + तुम् । By 8-2-31 हो ढः – A हकारः gets ढकारः as replacement when followed by a झल् letter or at the end of a पदम्।

(4) वढ् + धुम् । By 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः – A तकारः or थकारः gets धकारः as the replacement, when preceded by a letter of the झष्-प्रत्याहारः with the exception of the धकारः belonging to the धातुः √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११)।

(5) वढ् + ढुम् । By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः – When the letter “स्” or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (“त्”, “थ्”, “द्”, “ध्”, “न्”) comes in contact with either the letter “ष्” or a letter of the ट-वर्ग: (“ट्”, “ठ्”, “ड्”, “ढ्”, “ण्”) then it is replaced respectively by “ष्”, ट-वर्ग: (“ट्”, “ठ्”, “ड्”, “ढ्”, “ण्”)।

(6) व + ढुम् । By 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः – A ढकारः is elided if followed by a ढकारः।
Note: The situation of a ढकार: followed by a ढकार: only arises after applying 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः। So even though 8-3-13 is an earlier rule (compared to 8-4-41) in the त्रिपादी, it has to be allowed (in spite of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्) to see the operation done by 8-4-41, for otherwise 8-3-13 would become useless.

(7) वोढुम् । By 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य – When the letter ‘ढ्’ is dropped, the prior अवर्ण: (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) belonging to the verbal root √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८) or √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९) is replaced by the letter ‘ओ’।
Note: The situation of a ढकारलोप: only arises after applying 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः। So even though 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य is an earlier rule (compared to 8-3-13) in the अष्टाध्यायी, it has to be allowed (in spite of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्) to see the operation done by 8-3-13, for otherwise 6-3-112 would become useless.
See question 2.

‘वोढुम्’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।
And ‘वोढुम्’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः – A term ending in a कृत्-प्रत्यय: ending in a मकारः or एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) is designated as an indeclinable.

(8) वोढुम् + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) वोढुम् । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after an अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य (used in step 7) been used in Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. The सूत्रम् 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य is a अपवाद: (exception to) which सूत्रम्?

3. Where else (besides in वोढुम्) does the सूत्रम् 3-4-65 शकधृषज्ञाग्लाघटरभलभक्रमसहार्हास्त्यर्थेषु तुमुन् find application in the verses?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः apply in the form ‘मत्त’?

5. Which उणादि-प्रत्यय: is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भस्मन्’ (used in the commentary in the form भस्मना)? (Search the following document for ‘भस्म’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/notes-for-saturday-class/उणादिप्रकरणम्/)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I am not able to carry this heavy load.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गुरु’ for ‘heavy’ and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भार’ for ‘load.’

Easy questions:

1. In how many places in the verses has the सूत्रम् 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि been used?

2. Is there an alternate form for शक्नुमः by the सूत्रम् 6-4-107 लोपश्चास्यान्यतरस्यां म्वोः?

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