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आहारः mNs

Today we will look at the form आहारः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.74.8.

तौ दृष्ट्वा तु तदा सिद्धा समुत्थाय कृताञ्जलिः । पादौ जग्राह रामस्य लक्ष्मणस्य च धीमतः ।। ३-७४-६ ।।
पाद्यमाचमनीयं च सर्वं प्रादाद् यथाविधि । तामुवाच ततो रामः श्रमणीं संशितव्रताम् ।। ३-७४-७ ।।
कच्चित्ते निर्जिता विघ्नाः कच्चित्ते वर्धते तपः । कच्चित्ते नियतः कोप आहारश्च तपोधने ।। ३-७४-८ ।।
कच्चित्ते नियमाः प्राप्ताः कच्चित्ते मनसः सुखम् । कच्चित्ते गुरुशुश्रूषा सफला चारुभाषिणि ।। ३-७४-९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Rising respectfully with joined palms on seeing the two princes, Śabarī (who had attained perfection through Yoga or obstruction) for her part presently clasped the feet of Śrī Rāma and the prudent Lakṣmaṇa and offered (to honored guests) with due ceremony water to bathe their feet and rinse their mouth with and every (other) form of hospitality, Śrī Rāma then spoke (as follows) to the aforesaid ascetic woman, who was intent upon virtue :- (6-7) ‘Have all impediments (to the practice of your austerities) been thoroughly overcome by you? Is your asceticism (steadily) growing? Has anger been fully controlled by you as well as your diet, O lady with asceticism (alone) as your wealth? (8) Are (all) your religious vows completely observed and has satisfaction come to your mind? Has your attendance on your preceptor borne fruit, O lady of pleasing speech?’ (9)

आहरन्ति  रसं यस्मादित्याहारः।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आहार’ is derived from the verbal root √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६) along with the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’।

The ending ञकार: at the end of ‘हृञ्’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) आङ् + हृ + घञ् । By 3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् – The affix घञ् may be used following a verbal root to denote any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.
Note: A कारक: means ‘the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action.’ There are six कारका: – कर्तृ-कारक: (agent), कर्म-कारक: (object), करण-कारक: (instrument), सम्प्रदान-कारक: (recipient/beneficiary), अपादान-कारक: (separation/detachment/ablation) and अधिकरण-कारक: (locus.)
Note: Here संज्ञायाम् refers to a conventional/traditional sense (रूढार्थ:) as opposed to the mere derivative/etymological sense (यौगिकार्थ:)।

(2) आ हृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) आ हर् + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः – An अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(4) आहार् + अ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

= आहार ।

‘आहार’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(5) आहार + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) आहार + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) आहारः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the word आहारः been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says इत उत्तरं ‘३-३-१८ भावे’ ‘३-३-१९ अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम्’ इति ‘३-३-११३ कृत्यल्युटो बहुलम्’ इति यावद् द्व्यमप्यनुवर्तते। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् the काशिका says अकर्तरीति किम्? मिषत्यसौ मेषः। Please explain.

4. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says संज्ञायामिति किम्? कर्तव्यः कटः। Please explain.

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘घञ्’ in ‘पाद’? Which one prescribes it in ‘कोप’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“If a man’s diet is not clean then his mind is also not clean.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix शप् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-107 अम्बार्थनद्योर्ह्रस्वः been used in the verses?

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