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सोढुम् ind

Today we will look at the form सोढुम् ind from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 4.16.4.

सोढुं न च समर्थोऽहं युद्धकामस्य संयुगे । सुग्रीवस्य च संरम्भं हीनग्रीवस्य गर्जितम् ।। ४-१६-४ ।।
न च कार्यो विषादस्ते राघवं प्रति मत्कृते । धर्मज्ञश्च कृतज्ञश्च कथं पापं करिष्यति ।। ४-१६-५ ।।
निवर्तस्व सह स्त्रीभिः कथं भूयोऽनुगच्छसि । सौहृदं दर्शितं तारे मयि भक्तिः कृता त्वया ।। ४-१६-६ ।।
प्रतियोत्स्याम्यहं गत्वा सुग्रीवं जहि सम्भ्रमम् । दर्पं चास्य विनेष्यामि न च प्राणैर्वियोक्ष्यते ।। ४-१६-७ ।।

Gita Press translation – Nay, I am not able to tolerate the arrogance, much less the roar, of the weak-necked Sugrīva, who seeks an encounter on the battlefield (with me) (4). Nor should any anxiety be entertained by you from the side of Śrī Rāma on my account. How can Śrī Rāma – who knows what is right and cognizes his duty – perpetrate sin (in the form of killing one who is innocent)? (5) (Please) return with the (other) ladies. Why do you still follow me? Affection has been shown to such an extent and service rendered to me by you (6). Going out I shall give battle to Sugrīva; (pray) give up (all) perplexity. Nay, I shall take away his pride, yet he will not be rid of his life (7).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सोढुम्’ is derived from the verbal root √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८). The अकारः at the end of “षहँ” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The धातुः “षहँ” has an initial षकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः there is the substitution of सकारः in the place of the initial षकारः of a धातुः।

(1) सह् + तुमुँन् । By 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु – The affix तुमुँन् may be used following a verbal root when in conjunction with a word such as अलम् when it denotes ‘complete capability/competence.’

In the present example, सोढुम् is connected with समर्थ: which denotes ‘complete capability/competence.’ Hence 3-4-66 applies here.

Note: This सूत्रम् does not prescribe तुमुँन् when in conjunction with अलम् used in the sense of ‘enough of, no use of (having a prohibitive force.)’ But occasionally we may find तुमुँन् being used in conjunction with अलम् used in the prohibitive sense also. For example – अलं सुप्तजनं प्रबोधयितुम् ।

(2) सह् + तुम् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: As per 7-2-48 तीषसहलुभरुषरिषः – When following any one of the verbal roots listed below, a आर्धधातुकम् affix beginning with the letter ‘त्’ optionally takes the augment इट् –
(i) √इष् (इषुँ इच्छायाम् ६. ७८). According to some grammarians the verbal root √इष् (इषँ आभीक्ष्ण्ये ९. ६१) should also be included here.
(ii) √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८)
(iii) √लुभ् (लुभँ गार्ध्ये ४. १५३)
(iv) √रुष् (रुषँ हिंसार्थः १. ७८९)
(v) √रिष् (रिषँ हिंसार्थः १. ७९०)
Here we consider the case when the verbal root does not take the augment ‘इट्’।

See question 1.

(3) सढ् + तुम् । By 8-2-31 हो ढः – A हकारः gets ढकारः as replacement when followed by a झल् letter or at the end of a पदम्।

(4) सढ् + धुम् । By 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः – A तकारः or थकारः gets धकारः as the replacement, when preceded by a letter of the झष्-प्रत्याहारः with the exception of the धकारः belonging to the धातुः √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११)।

(5) सढ् + ढुम् । By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः – When the letter “स्” or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (“त्”, “थ्”, “द्”, “ध्”, “न्”) comes in contact with either the letter “ष्” or a letter of the ट-वर्ग: (“ट्”, “ठ्”, “ड्”, “ढ्”, “ण्”) then it is replaced respectively by “ष्”, ट-वर्ग: (“ट्”, “ठ्”, “ड्”, “ढ्”, “ण्”)।

(6) स + ढुम् । By 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः – A ढकारः is elided if followed by a ढकारः।
Note: The situation of a ढकार: followed by a ढकार: only arises after applying 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः। So even though 8-3-13 is an earlier rule (compared to 8-4-41) in the अष्टाध्यायी, it has to be allowed (in spite of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्) to see the operation done by 8-4-41, for otherwise 8-3-13 would become useless.

(7) सोढुम् । By 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य – When the letter ‘ढ्’ is dropped, the prior अवर्ण: (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) belonging to the verbal root √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८) or √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९) is replaced by the letter ‘ओ’।
Note: The situation of a ढकारलोप: only arises after applying 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः। So even though 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य is an earlier rule (compared to 8-3-13) in the अष्टाध्यायी, it has to be allowed (in spite of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्) to see the operation done by 8-3-13, for otherwise 6-3-112 would become useless.

‘सोढुम्’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।
And ‘सोढुम्’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः – A term ending in a कृत्-प्रत्यय: ending in a मकारः or एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) is designated as an indeclinable.

(8) सोढुम् + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) सोढुम् । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. What would be the final form in this example in the case where the optional augment इट् is used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – पर्याप्तिवचनेषु किम्? अलं भुक्त्वा। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the सूत्रम् 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अलमर्थेषु किम्? पर्याप्तं भुङ्क्ते। प्रभूततेह गम्यते न तु भोक्तु: सामर्थ्यम्। Please explain.

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य (used in step 7) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह रेफलोपस्यासंभवात् ‘ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य-‘ इत्यतो ‘ढलोप’ एवानुवर्तते। Please explain.

5. Commenting further on the सूत्रम् 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य the तत्त्वबोधिनी says -ढलोपे किम्? सहते। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sankrit?
Jāmbavān said to Śrī Hanumān – ‘You are capable of crossing the ocean.’ Use the verbal root √तॄ (तॄ प्लवनतरणयोः १. ११२४) for ‘to cross.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-106 सम्बुद्धौ च been used in the verses?

2. Can you recall a सूत्रम् from the ‘अङ्गस्य’ अधिकार: in the which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्री’ (used in the form स्त्रीभिः in the verses)?


1 Comment

  1. 1. What would be the final form in this example in the case where the optional augment इट् is used?
    Answer: The final form would be सहितुम्।
    सह् + तुमुँन् । By 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु।
    = सह् + तुम् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सह् + इट् तुम् । Note: As per 7-2-48 तीषसहलुभरुषरिषः – When following any one of the verbal roots listed below, a आर्धधातुकम् affix beginning with the letter ‘त्’ optionally takes the augment इट् –
    (i) √इष् (इषुँ इच्छायाम् ६. ७८). According to some grammarians the verbal root √इष् (इषँ आभीक्ष्ण्ये ९. ६१) should also be included here.
    (ii) √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८)
    (iii) √लुभ् (लुभँ गार्ध्ये ४. १५३)
    (iv) √रुष् (रुषँ हिंसार्थः १. ७८९)
    (v) √रिष् (रिषँ हिंसार्थः १. ७९०)
    Here we consider the case when the verbal root does allow the affix ‘तुम्’ to take the augment ‘इट्’।
    = सह् + इ तुम् = सहितुम् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

    ‘सहितुम्’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः।

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – पर्याप्तिवचनेषु किम्? अलं भुक्त्वा। Please explain.
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु says – The affix तुमुँन् may be used following a verbal root when in conjunction with a word such as अलम् when it denotes ‘complete capability/competence.’ In the sentence अलं भुक्त्वा, अलम् does not denote complete capability/competence. It instead denotes the sense of ‘away with’ or ‘no use of (having a prohibitive force.)’ Hence the सूत्रम् 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु cannot be used here.

    3. Commenting further on the सूत्रम् 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अलमर्थेषु किम्? पर्याप्तं भुङ्क्ते। प्रभूततेह गम्यते न तु भोक्तु: सामर्थ्यम्। Please explain.
    Answer: In order to understand the importance of the condition अलमर्थेषु (in the सूत्रम् 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु) let us consider the example पर्याप्तं भुङ्क्ते। Here पर्याप्तम् does not denote सामर्थ्यम् (capability/competence) of the consumer. It instead denotes प्रभूतता (abundance/plenty.) Thus पर्याप्तं भुङ्क्ते means – (someone) eats plenty. Since पर्याप्तम् – as used in this sentence – does not have the meaning of अलम् (capability/competence), the सूत्रम् 3-4-66 does not apply. If पाणिनि: had not specified the condition अलमर्थेषु, it would have led to the undesirable consequence of the सूत्रम् 3-4-66 applying here also.

    4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य (used in step 7) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह रेफलोपस्यासंभवात् ‘ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य-‘ इत्यतो ‘ढलोप’ एवानुवर्तते। Please explain.
    Answer: The वृत्तिः of 6-3-112 says that अनयोरवर्णस्य ओत्स्यात् ढलोपे – When the letter ‘ढ्’ is dropped, the prior अवर्ण: (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) belonging to the verbal root √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८) or √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९) is replaced by the letter ‘ओ’। The question is – why doesn’t the अनुवृत्ति: of the entire term ढ्रलोपे come down (from the prior सूत्रम् 6-3-111 ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोऽणः) in to 6-3-112? Why only ढलोपे? The तत्त्वबोधिनी gives the answer as रेफलोपस्यासंभवात्। Since neither the verbal root √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८) nor the verbal root √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९) contains the letter ‘र्’ there is no possibility of there being an elision of the letter ‘र्’ (by 8-3-14 रो रि) belonging to one of these two verbal roots. Hence there is no point in bringing down the the अनुवृत्ति: of the entire term ढ्रलोपे। It is sufficient to take the अनुवृत्ति: of only लोपे।

    5. Commenting further on the सूत्रम् 6-3-112 सहिवहोरोदवर्णस्य the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ढलोपे किम्? सहते। Please explain.
    Answer: सहते is derived from the verbal root √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८).
    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    सह् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = सह् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सह् + त । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्।
    = सह् + ते । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे।
    = सह् + शप् + ते । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
    = सह् + अ + ते = सहते । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: In this example, 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः finds no application and consequently neither does 6-3-112. When ढलोपः (elision of the letter ‘ढ्’) does not occur, 6-3-112 doesn’t apply. The counter-example सहते is given to demonstrate this fact.

    6. How would you say this in Sankrit?
    Jāmbavān said to Śrī Hanumān – ‘You are capable of crossing the ocean.’ Use the verbal root √तॄ (तॄ प्लवनतरणयोः १. ११२४) for ‘to cross.’
    Answer: उदधिम् तरितुम्/तरीतुम् समर्थः असि इति जाम्बवान् हनुमन्तम् उवाच = उदधिं तरितुं/तरीतुं समर्थोऽसीति जाम्बवान् हनुमन्तमुवाच।
    Note: The optional elongation of the augment इट् in तरितुम्/तरीतुम् is made possible by 7-2-38 वॄतो वा।

    Easy questions:

    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-106 सम्बुद्धौ च been used in the verses?
    Answer: 7-3-106 सम्बुद्धौ च has been used in the form (हे) तारे (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तारा’, सम्बुद्धिः)।
    (हे) तारा + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्…। ‘सुँ’ get the सम्बुद्धि-सञ्ज्ञा here by 2-3-49 एकवचनं संबुद्धिः।
    = (हे) तारा + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = (हे) तारे + स् । By 7-3-106 सम्बुद्धौ च – A अङ्गम् (base) ending in the feminine affix ‘आप्’ takes the letter ‘ए’ as a substitute when followed by a सम्बुद्धिः affix. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the अङ्गम् is substituted by the letter ‘ए’।
    = (हे) तारे । By 6-1-69 एङ् ह्रस्वात् सम्बुद्धेः।

    2. Can you recall a सूत्रम् from the ‘अङ्गस्य’ अधिकार: in the which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्री’ (used in the form स्त्रीभिः in the verses)?
    Answer: पाणिनि: specifically mentions the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्री’ in the सूत्रम् 6-4-79 स्त्रिया: – There is a substitution of ‘इयँङ्’ in place of the term ‘स्त्री’ when followed by an affix beginning with a vowel. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter ‘ई’ of the अङ्गम् ‘स्त्री’ is substituted by ‘इयँङ्’।

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