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गृध्नुः mNs

Today we will look at the form गृध्नुः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.63.8.

यदाचरति कल्याणि शुभं वा यदि वाशुभम् | तदेव लभते भद्रे कर्ता कर्मजमात्मनः ।। २-६३-६ ।।
गुरु लाघवमर्थानामारम्भे कर्मणां फलम् | दोषं वा यो न जानाति स बाल इति होच्यते ।। २-६३-७ ।।
कश्चिदाम्रवणं छित्त्वा पलाशांश्च निषिञ्चति | पुष्पं दृष्ट्वा फले गृध्नुः स शोचति फलागमे ।। २-६३-८ ।।
अविज्ञाय फलं यो हि कर्म त्वेवानुधावति । स शोचेत् फलवेलायां यथा किंशुकसेचकः ।। २-६३-९ ।।

Gita Press translation – A doer surely reaps, O blessed lady, the fruit of his own deeds corresponding to the nature, good, or evil of that which he does, O gracious one! (6) He who does not reckon, while undertaking actions, the relative importance of their fruits as well as the advantages or disadvantages accruing from them is surely dubbed as a fool (7). Anyone who, cutting down a (whole) mango grove (because of its unattractive and tiny blossoms) nourishes (a cluster of) Palāśa trees expecting (large and luscious) fruits on seeing their (charming and big) flowers repents at the time of their fruition (8). Indeed like the man who nourishes a Kiṁśuka tree, he who embarks on action alone, not minding the consequences, is sure to repent when the action bears fruit (9).

गृध्यति तच्छील: = गृध्नुः ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गृध्नु’ is derived from the verbal root √गृध् (गृधुँ अभिकाङ्क्षायाम् ४. १६१).

The उकार: at the end of ‘गृधुँ’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(1) गृध् + क्नु । By 3-2-140 त्रसिगृधिधृषिक्षिपेः क्नुः – Following any one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix ‘क्नु’ may be used to denote an agent who performs an action because of his nature/habit or sense of duty or skill –
(i) √त्रस् (त्रसीँ उद्वेगे ४. ११)
(ii) √गृध् (गृधुँ अभिकाङ्क्षायाम् ४. १६१)
(iii) √धृष् (ञिधृषाँ प्रागल्भ्ये ५. २५)
(iv) √क्षिप् (क्षिपँ प्रेरणे ४. १५, ६. ५)

(2) गृध् + नु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops the गुणादेश: which would have been done by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च। See question 1.

= गृध्नु ।

‘गृध्नु’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(3) गृध्नु + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(4) गृध्नु + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) गृध्नुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. After step 2, why doesn’t the affix ‘नु’ take the augment इट् as per 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः?

2. Which अधिकार: exerts its influence on the सूत्रम् 3-2-140 त्रसिगृधिधृषिक्षिपेः क्नुः?
(i) प्रत्ययः, परश्च
(ii) धातोः
(iii) तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु
(iv) All of the above

3. Can you spot the affix ‘ड’ in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सेचक’ (used in the verses as part of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘किंशुकसेचक’)?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘जा’ in जानाति?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There is never satisfaction in the mind of one who is greedy.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सन्तोष’ for ‘satisfaction.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot a सम्प्रसारणम् in the verses?

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