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ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् mAp

Today we will look at the form ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् mAp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.69.31.

अग्निज्वालानिकाशेन ललाटस्थेन दीप्यता । महापक्ष्मेण पिङ्गेन विपुलेनायतेन च ।। ३-६९-२९ ।।
एकेनोरसि घोरेण नयनेन सुदर्शिना । महादंष्ट्रोपपन्नं तं लेलिहानं महामुखम् ।। ३-६९-३० ।।
भक्षयन्तं महाघोरानृक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् । घोरौ भुजौ विकुर्वाणमुभौ योजनमायतौ ।। ३-६९-३१ ।।
कराभ्यां विविधान्गृह्य ऋक्षान्पक्षिगणान्मृगान् । आकर्षन्तं विकर्षन्तमनेकान्मृगयूथपान् ।। ३-६९-३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Endowed with a single fearful reddish yet brown fiery eye, both long and wide and bright as a flame, located in a forehead in (the center of) the chest, (nay) furnished with long lashes and possessing a good vision, the ogre was licking again and again his enormous mouth set with big teeth (29-30). The ogre devoured the fiercest bears and lions as well as other beasts and birds. Stretching out both his frightful arms, each eight miles long, and seizing with his hands bears and other beasts and flocks of birds of various kinds, he drew towards himself many leaders of herds of deer and cast aside others (31-32).

(1) ऋक्षाश्च सिंहाश्च मृगाश्च द्विजाश्च = ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजा: – bears and lions and (other) beasts and birds

(2) ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस् । By 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term which begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. ‘ ऋक्ष’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’। Hence as per 2-2-33, ‘ ऋक्ष जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound (and the remaining terms of the compound may be placed in any order.)

Note: ‘ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) ऋक्ष + सिंह + मृग + द्विज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज’ is masculine since the latter member ‘द्विज’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्।

(5) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) the काशिका says – तपरकरणं किम्? अश्वावृषौ, वृषाश्व इति वा। Please explain.

2. In which word(s) in the verses has the कृत् affix ‘क’ been used?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् in the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नयन’ (used in the form नयनेन (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)? Hint: The विग्रह: is नीयतेऽनेन।

4. The form महापक्ष्मेण used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage.) What is the grammatically correct form?

5. Is the use of the affix ‘ल्यप्’ in the form गृह्य justified?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There was a fierce battle between Indra and Vṛtra.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उग्र’ for ‘fierce.’ Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘Indra and Vṛtra’ = इन्द्रश्च वृत्रश्च।

Easy questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is used only in the dual (no singular or plural)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-102 सुपि च been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) the काशिका says – तपरकरणं किम्? अश्वावृषौ, वृषाश्व इति वा। Please explain.
    Answer: Why has the letter ‘त्’ been used (following the letter ‘अ’) in the term ‘अदन्तम्‌’ (= ‘अत्-अन्तम्’) in the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌? Recall that as per 1-1-70 तपरस्तत्कालस्य, ‘अत्’ refers to the letter ‘अ’ only. It excludes the letter ‘आ’ – which would have been included (as per 1-1-69 अणुदित् सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः) had ‘त्’ not been used.
    In order to understand the importance of specifying ‘अत्’ (with the ‘त्’), consider the example – अश्वा च वृषश्च = अश्वावृषौ or वृषाश्वे – a mare and a bull. The सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ does not apply in this example because even though ‘अश्वा’ begins with a vowel it does not end in the letter ‘अ’ (in ends in the letter ‘आ’)। Therefore both forms – अश्वावृषौ and वृषाश्वे – are allowed. If पाणिनि: had not done तपरकरणम् (using the letter ‘त्’ in ‘अत्’) in the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, it would have applied here also requiring ‘अश्वा’ to be necessarily placed in the prior position, giving only one form अश्वावृषौ which would have been undesirable.

    Note: Even though the काशिका says that both forms – अश्वावृषौ and वृषाश्वे – are allowed, but if we strictly obey the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ the form वृषाश्वे only should be allowed, because in ‘वृष’ both vowels are लघु, while in ‘अश्वा’ both are गुरु।

    2. In which word(s) in the verses has the कृत् affix ‘क’ been used?
    Answer: The affix ‘क’ has been used in the forms ललाटस्थेन (प्रातिपदिकम् ’ललाटस्थ’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्) and मृगयूथपान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ’मृगयूथप’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    ललाटे तिष्ठति = ललाटस्थः – located in a forehead

    ‘स्थ’ is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७).
    The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ललाटस्थ’ is derived as follows:
    ललाट ङि + स्था + क । By 3-2-4 सुपि स्थः। Note: This rule is split into two parts. The first part is सुपि – When in composition with a पदम् which ends in a सुप् affix (ref. 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा..), a verbal root which ends in the letter ‘आ’ may take the affix ‘क’।
    Note: The term सुपि ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘ललाट ङि’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।
    = ललाट ङि + स्था + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = ललाट ङि + स्थ् + अ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च।
    = ललाट ङि + स्थ ।
    We form a compound between ‘ललाट ङि’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘स्थ’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्। In the compound, ‘ललाट ङि’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: Here ‘ललाट ङि’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपपदम् ends in the nominative case.
    ‘ललाट ङि + स्थ’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    = ललाटस्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ललाटस्थ’ is an adjective. Here it is qualifying ‘नयन’। Therefore it is used in the neuter gender. ‘ललाटस्थ’ declines like वन-शब्दः। तृतीया-एकवचनम् is ललाटस्थेन ।

    मृगयूथान् पाति = मृगयूथपः – protector of herds of deer
    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मृगयूथप’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नृप’ shown in answer to question 5 in the following comment – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/17/निशाचरी-fns/#comment-5533

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मृगयूथप’ is an adjective. Here it is qualifying ‘मृग’ (which is not explicitly mentioned but understood.) Therefore it is used in the masculine gender. ‘मृगयूथप’ declines like राम-शब्दः। द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् is मृगयूथपान्।

    3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् in the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नयन’ (used in the form नयनेन (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)? Hint: The विग्रह: is नीयतेऽनेन।
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-3-117 करणाधिकरणयोश्च prescribes the affix ल्युट् used to form the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नयन’ – derived from the verbal root √नी (णीञ् प्रापणे १. १०४९).

    नीयतेऽनेन = नयनम् – The eye (the instrument for leading).

    नी + ल्युट् । By 3-3-117 करणाधिकरणयोश्च – The affix ल्युट् may be used following a verbal root to denote the instrument or the locus of the action.
    = नी + यु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = नी + अन । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    = ने + अन । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।
    = नयन । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।
    ‘नयन’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    4. The form महापक्ष्मेण used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage.) What is the grammatically correct form?
    Answer: The grammatically correct form is महापक्ष्मणा (प्रातिपदिकम्‌ ‘महापक्ष्मन्‘, नपुंसकलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्।)
    अदन्तत्वमार्षम् – The form महापक्ष्मेण (प्रातिपदिकम्‌ ‘महापक्ष्म’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses is grammatically irregular because it assumes the existence of a प्रातिपदिकम्‌ ‘पक्ष्म’ (ending in the letter ‘अ’), but the correct प्रातिपदिकम्‌ is ‘पक्षमन्’ (ending in the letter ‘न्’।)

    The compound ‘महापक्ष्मन्’ is a बहुव्रीहिः।

    लौकिक-विग्रह: is
    महान्ति पक्ष्माणि यस्य तत् = महापक्ष्म (नयनम्) – that (eye) which has big eyelashes.

    अलौकिक-विग्रह:
    महत् जस् + पक्ष्मन् जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे।
    The adjective ‘महत् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।
    Note: ‘महत् जस् + पक्ष्मन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = महत् + पक्ष्मन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = मह आ + पक्ष्मन् । By 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः, 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य।
    = महापक्ष्मन् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, महापक्ष्मणा is qualifying the neuter noun नयनेन। Hence we assign the neuter gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महापक्ष्मन्’। It declines like कर्मन्-शब्द:। तृतीया-एकवचनम् is महापक्ष्मणा।

    5. Is the use of the affix ‘ल्यप्’ in the form गृह्य justified?
    Answer: No, the use of the affix ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the form गृह्य cannot be justified. As per the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).
    The form गृह्य is not a compound and hence the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 cannot apply – the affix ‘क्त्वा’ should not be replaced by ‘ल्यप्’। The grammatically correct form is गृहीत्वा – derived from the verbal root √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९.७१).

    Please see the answer to question 4 in following comment for the derivation of the form गृहीत्वा – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/06/08/मेघश्यामः-mns/#comment-35332

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “There was a fierce battle between Indra and Vṛtra.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उग्र’ for ‘fierce.’ Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘Indra and Vṛtra’ = इन्द्रश्च वृत्रश्च।
    Answer: इन्द्रवृत्रयोः उग्रम् युद्धम् बभूव = इन्द्रवृत्रयोरुग्रं युद्धं बभूव।

    Easy questions:
    1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is used only in the dual (no singular or plural)?
    Answer: The सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ’उभ’ used in the form उभौ (qualifying the masculine noun भुजौ) occurs only in the dual.

    The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्।
    उभ + औट् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
    = उभ + औ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = उभौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि। Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-102 सुपि च been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-3-102 सुपि च has been used in the verses in the form कराभ्याम् (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’कर’, तृतीया-द्विवचनम्)।
    कर + भ्याम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending ‘म्’ of ‘भ्याम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = कराभ्याम् । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

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