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इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ mAd

Today we will look at the form इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ  mAd from महाभारतम् 5.59.11.

श्यामौ बृहन्तौ तरुणौ शालस्कन्धाविवोद्गतौ । एकासनगतौ दृष्ट्वा भयं मां महदाविशत् ।। ५-५९-१० ।।
इन्द्रविष्णुसमावेतौ मन्दात्मा नावबुध्यते । संश्रयाद् द्रोणभीष्माभ्यां कर्णस्य च विकत्थनात् ।। ५-५९-११ ।।
निदेशस्थाविमौ यस्य मानसस्तस्य सेत्स्यते । संकल्पो धर्मराजस्य निश्चयो मे तदाभवत् ।। ५-५९-१२ ।।
सत्कृतश्चान्नपानाभ्यामासीनो लब्धसत्क्रियः । अञ्जलिं मूर्ध्नि संधाय तौ संदेशमचोदयम् ।। ।। ५-५९-१३ ।।

Translation – Having seen the two young men (Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna) of black complexion and large stature rising like the trunks of Śala trees, seated on the same seat, a great fear seized me (10). Owing to his reliance on Droṇa and Bhīṣma and owing to the boasting of Karṇa, the one (Duryodhana) of dim intellect does not understand that these two are like Indra and Viṣṇu (11). At that time I was convinced that the mental resolve of Yudhiṣṭhira (the king of virtue) –  who has these two under his command – is bound to bear fruit  (12). Entertained with food and drink and being seated with honor, I placed my clasped hands on my head and conveyed to them your message (13).

(1) इन्द्रश्च विष्णुश्च = इन्द्रविष्णू – Indra and Viṣṇu

(2) इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘विष्णु सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘विष्णु’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘इन्द्र’ does not. But as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘इन्द्र सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘इन्द्र’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘विष्णु’ does not.
The सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the earlier rule 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि। Hence when in a द्वन्द्व: compound there is one term which has the designation ‘घि’ and another which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’, the term which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. Therefore ‘इन्द्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) इन्द्र + विष्णु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रविष्णु ।

Now we form the तत्पुरुषः compound इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ।

(5) इन्द्रविष्णुभ्यां समौ or इन्द्रविष्ण्वो:  समौ = इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ – like Indra and Viṣṇu

(6) इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम् + सम सुँ । By 2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) any one of the following and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष: –
i) ‘पूर्व’ (prior)
ii) ‘सदृश’ (like/similar)
iii) ‘सम’ (equal to)
iv) ‘ऊनार्थ’ – ‘ऊन’ (less) or any of its synonyms
v) ‘कलह’ (quarrel)
vi) ‘निपुण’ (skillful)
vii) ‘मिश्र’ (mixed)
viii) ‘श्लक्ष्ण’ (gentle/polished.)
Note: By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

or

(6) इन्द्रविष्णु ओस् + सम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम् + सम सुँ’ / ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस् + सम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(7) इन्द्रविष्णु + सम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रविष्णुसम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रविष्णुसम’ is masculine since the final member ‘सम’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying श्रीकृष्णार्जुनौ।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-द्विवचनम् ।

(8) इन्द्रविष्णुसम + औट् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) इन्द्रविष्णुसम + औ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides ‘इन्द्रविष्णु’) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) been applied?

2. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses has the affix ‘टच्’ been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form आसीन:?

5. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In prowess, Sugrīva and (Śrī) Hanumān were equal to Indra and Vāyu.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the form अवबुध्यते?

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