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पवनाग्निसमागमः mNs

Today we will look at the form पवनाग्निसमागमः  mNs from रघुवंशम् verse 8-4.

स बभूव दुरासदः परैर्गुरुणाऽथर्वविदा कृतक्रियः ।
पवनाग्निसमागमो ह्ययं सहितं ब्रह्म यदस्त्रतेजसा ॥ ८-४ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
इति अथर्वविदाऽथर्ववेदाभिज्ञेन गुरुणा वसिष्ठेन कृतक्रियः । अथर्वोक्तविधिना कृताभिषेकसंस्कार इत्यर्थ: । सोऽजः परैः शत्रुभिर्दुरासदो दुर्धर्षो बभूव । तथा हि – अस्त्रतेजसा क्षत्रतेजसा सहितं युक्तं यद्ब्रह्म ब्रह्मतेजोऽयं पवनाग्निसमागमो हि तत्कल्प इत्यर्थः । ‘पवनाग्नि’ इत्यत्र पूर्वनिपातशास्त्रस्यानित्यत्वात् ‘2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि’ इति नाग्निशब्दस्य पूर्वनिपातः । तथा च काशिकायाम् – ‘अयमेकस्तु लक्षणहेत्वोरिति निर्देशः पूर्वनिपातव्यभिचारचिह्नम्’ इति । क्षात्रेणैवायं दुर्धर्षः किमयं पुनर्वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे सतीत्यर्थः । अत्र मनुः – ‘नाक्षत्रं ब्रह्म भवति क्षत्रं नाब्रह्म वर्धते । ब्रह्म क्षत्रं च संपृक्तमिह चामुत्र च वर्धते ।।’ इति ।। ४ ।।

Translation – Thus when his preceptor, who was deep-learned in Atharva texts, had performed the rites for his installation, he became irresistible to his foes: for like Wind and Fire uniting are sacred lore joined to the glory of weapons (4).

(1) पवनश्चाग्निश्च = पवनाग्नी – Wind and Fire

(2) पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । ‘अग्नि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पवन’ does not. Hence ‘अग्नि सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.
Also ‘पवन’ has three syllables while ‘अग्नि’ has two syllables. Therefore ‘अग्नि सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

(4) The placement of ‘पवन सुँ’ in the prior position is justified using the ज्ञापकम् contained in the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः। ‘लक्षण’ has three syllables while ‘हेतु’ has two syllables. Also, ‘हेतु’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘लक्षण’ does not. Therefore as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ as well as 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘हेतु’ should have been placed in the prior position (in the compound लक्षणहेत्वोः)। But पाणिनि: has placed ‘लक्षण’ in the prior position. This gives us a hint that we may occasionally find violations of the rules which prescribe prior placement in a compound.

Note: ‘पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) पवन + अग्नि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) पवनाग्नि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Now we form the षष्ठी-समास: – पवनाग्न्योः समागम: = पवनाग्निसमागम: ।

(6) पवनाग्नि ओस् + समागम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पवनाग्नि ओस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पवनाग्नि ओस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पवनाग्नि ओस् + समागम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) पवनाग्नि + समागम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पवनाग्निसमागम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पवनाग्निसमागम’ is masculine since the latter member ‘समागम’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) पवनाग्निसमागम + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) पवनाग्निसमागम + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) पवनाग्निसमागम: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What type of compound is कृतक्रियः used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. षष्ठीतत्पुरुष:
iii. कर्मधारय:
iv. बहुव्रीहि:

2. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form दुरासदः used in the verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verse?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the words वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे and सति in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should avoid onion and garlic.” Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘onion and garlic’ = पलाण्डुं च लशुनं च। Use the verbal root √वृज् (वृजीँ वर्जने १०. ३४४) for ‘to avoid.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the commentary?

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