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ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् mAp

Today we will look at the form ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् mAp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.69.31.

अग्निज्वालानिकाशेन ललाटस्थेन दीप्यता । महापक्ष्मेण पिङ्गेन विपुलेनायतेन च ।। ३-६९-२९ ।।
एकेनोरसि घोरेण नयनेन सुदर्शिना । महादंष्ट्रोपपन्नं तं लेलिहानं महामुखम् ।। ३-६९-३० ।।
भक्षयन्तं महाघोरानृक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् । घोरौ भुजौ विकुर्वाणमुभौ योजनमायतौ ।। ३-६९-३१ ।।
कराभ्यां विविधान्गृह्य ऋक्षान्पक्षिगणान्मृगान् । आकर्षन्तं विकर्षन्तमनेकान्मृगयूथपान् ।। ३-६९-३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Endowed with a single fearful reddish yet brown fiery eye, both long and wide and bright as a flame, located in a forehead in (the center of) the chest, (nay) furnished with long lashes and possessing a good vision, the ogre was licking again and again his enormous mouth set with big teeth (29-30). The ogre devoured the fiercest bears and lions as well as other beasts and birds. Stretching out both his frightful arms, each eight miles long, and seizing with his hands bears and other beasts and flocks of birds of various kinds, he drew towards himself many leaders of herds of deer and cast aside others (31-32).

(1) ऋक्षाश्च सिंहाश्च मृगाश्च द्विजाश्च = ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजा: – bears and lions and (other) beasts and birds

(2) ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस् । By 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term which begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. ‘ ऋक्ष’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’। Hence as per 2-2-33, ‘ ऋक्ष जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound (and the remaining terms of the compound may be placed in any order.)

Note: ‘ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) ऋक्ष + सिंह + मृग + द्विज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज’ is masculine since the latter member ‘द्विज’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्।

(5) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।


1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) the काशिका says – तपरकरणं किम्? अश्वावृषौ, वृषाश्व इति वा। Please explain.

2. In which word(s) in the verses has the कृत् affix ‘क’ been used?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् in the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नयन’ (used in the form नयनेन (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)? Hint: The विग्रह: is नीयतेऽनेन।

4. The form महापक्ष्मेण used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage.) What is the grammatically correct form?

5. Is the use of the affix ‘ल्यप्’ in the form गृह्य justified?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There was a fierce battle between Indra and Vṛtra.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उग्र’ for ‘fierce.’ Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘Indra and Vṛtra’ = इन्द्रश्च वृत्रश्च।

Easy questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is used only in the dual (no singular or plural)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-102 सुपि च been used in the verses?

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