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वस्त्राभरणदातारः mNp

Today we will look at the form वस्त्राभरणदातारः mNp from महाभारतम् 13.23.91.

वस्त्राभरणदातारो भक्तपानान्नदास्तथा । कुटुम्बानां च दातार: पुरुषाः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९१ ।।
सर्वहिंसानिवृत्ताश्च नराः सर्वसहाश्च ये । सर्वस्याश्रयभूताश्च ते नराः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९२ ।।
मातरं पितरं चैव शुश्रूषन्ति जितेन्द्रियाः । भ्रातॄणां चैव सस्नेहास्ते नराः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९३ ।।

Translation – Those men who distribute clothes and ornaments, as also meals, drinks and food, and who help (others’) families, go to heaven (91). Those men who have abstained from all sorts of injury or harm, who endure everything, and who support all others, go to heaven (92). Those men who, with their senses controlled, serve their parents and who are affectionate towards their brothers, go to heaven (93).

(1) वस्त्राणि चाभरणानि च = वस्त्राभरणानि – clothes and ornaments

(2) वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘आभरण जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘आभरण’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘वस्त्र’ does not. But since ‘वस्त्र’ has only two syllables while ‘आभरण’ has three syllables, ‘वस्त्र जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore ‘वस्त्र जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वस्त्र + आभरण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) वस्त्राभरण । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound वस्त्राभरणदातारः।

(6) वस्त्राभरणानां दाता = वस्त्राभरणदाता – who distributes clothes and ornaments

(7) वस्त्राभरण आम् + दातृ सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वस्त्राभरण आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘वस्त्राभरण आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वस्त्राभरण आम् + दातृ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(8) वस्त्राभरण + दातृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वस्त्राभरणदातृ ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वस्त्राभरणदातृ’ is masculine since the final member ‘दातृ’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying पुरुषाः।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(9) वस्त्राभरणदातृ + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘जस्’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 and 6-4-11 to apply below in steps 11 and 12 respectively.

(10) वस्त्राभरणदातृ + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) वस्त्राभरणदातर् + अस् । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending short letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if a अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter. Hence ‘ऋ’ is replaced by ‘अर्’।

(12) वस्त्राभरणदातार् + अस् । By 6-4-11 अप्तृन्तृच्स्वसृनप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृक्षत्तृहोतृपोतृप्रशास्तॄणाम् – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix that is not a सम्बुद्धिः follows, the penultimate vowel of ‘अप्’, of words ending in affixes ‘तृन्’ and ‘तृच्’ and of the words ‘स्वसृ’, ‘नप्तृ’, ‘नेष्टृ’, ‘त्वष्टृ’, ‘क्षत्तृ’, ‘होतृ’, ‘पोतृ’ and ‘प्रशास्तृ’ is elongated. (This सूत्रम् applies in the present situation because ‘दातृ’ ends in the affix ‘तृच्’)।

(13) वस्त्राभरणदातारः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये been used in the verses?

2. Which compound used in the verses is a पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the form दातारः?

4. What type of compound is जितेन्द्रियाः as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘स’ in the compound सस्नेहा:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“King Janaka gave his (own) daughter Sītā – adorned with clothes and ornaments – to Śrī Rāma.”

Easy questions:

1. Why is शुश्रूषन्ति a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

2. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि been used?

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