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हयान् mAp

Today we will look at the form हयान् mAp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.91.55.

हयान्गजान्खरानुष्ट्रांस्तथैव सुरभेः सुतान् । अभोजयन् वाहनपास्तेषां भोज्यं यथाविधि ।। २-९१-५५ ।।
इक्षूंश्च मधुलाजांश्च भोजयन्ति स्म वाहनान् । इक्ष्वाकुवरयोधानां चोदयन्तो महाबलाः ।। २-९१-५६ ।।

Gita Press translation – The keepers (created and detailed by Bharadwāja) of the animals carrying Bharata’s men on their backs duly fed the horses, elephants, donkeys, camels as well as bullocks with articles fit for their consumption (55). Coaxing the animals carrying the gallant warriors of Ikṣwāku’s race on their back, the (aforesaid) very mighty keepers fed them with pieces of sugarcane as well as with fried grains of paddy soaked in honey (56).

हयान् is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हय’।

‘हय’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that वाहनपा: is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence वाहनपा हयान् भोज्यमभोजयन्। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as हया भोज्यमभुञ्जत। हया: is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हय’। Hence ‘हय’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √भुज् (भुजँ पालनाभ्यवहारयोः ७. १७)). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √भुज्) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 are satisfied here.

(1) हय + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘हय’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(2) हय + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(3) हयास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) हयान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Note: We can similarly derive the forms गजान्, खरान्, उष्ट्रान् and सुतान्।


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ been used for the first time in Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Where has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ been used (in place of ‘लँट्’) in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योध’ (used as part of the compound इक्ष्वाकुवरयोधानाम्)?

4. On the basis of which ज्ञापकम् (indication) is the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) done in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाहन’?

5. By which सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी does पाणिनि: give भोज्यम् as a ready-made form?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “The cows drank water of the Yamunā river.”
ii) “Śrī Kṛṣṇa fed the cows water of the Yamunā river.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment अट् in अभोजयन्?

2. In the verses can you spot two places where the सूत्रम् 8-3-7 नश्छव्यप्रशान् has been used?

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