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शैलम् mAs

Today we will look at the form शैलम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.25.28.

भगवानपि तं शैलं स्वस्थाने पूर्ववत्प्रभुः । पश्यतां सर्वभूतानां स्थापयामास लीलया ।। १०-२५-२८ ।।
तं प्रेमवेगान्निभृता व्रजौकसो यथा समीयुः परिरम्भणादिभिः । गोप्यश्च सस्नेहमपूजयन्मुदा दध्यक्षताद्भिर्युयुजुः सदाशिषः ।। १०-२५-२९ ।।

निभृताः पूर्णाः । यथा यथोचितं परिरम्भणादिभिः समीयुरुपजग्मुः । सदाशिषः श्रेष्ठानाशीर्वादान् ।। २९ ।।

Gita Press translation – The almighty Lord too sportfully set down the mountain as before in its own place, all the creatures looking on (with wonder) (28). Overflowing with an uprush of love, the people of Vraja approached Him with embraces and other appropriate (loving) gestures and the Gopis joyously exhibited their loving regard for Him by sprinkling Him with curds and unbroken rice and showered their choice blessings (on Him) (29).

शैलम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शैल’।

‘शैल’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that भगवान् is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence भगवाञ्शैलं स्थापयामास। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as शैलस्तस्थौ । शैलः is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शैल’। Hence ‘शैल’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √स्था) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 are satisfied here.

(1) शैल + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘शैल’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) शैलम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन्) सम्पदादिभ्‍यः क्विप् been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘डु’ in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the उपधा-लोप: (elision of the penultimate letter) of the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) in the form उपजग्मुः used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “Lord Vāmana’s foot stood on Bali’s head.”
ii) “Lord Vāmana placed his (own) foot on Bali’s head.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “Kumbhakarṇa woke up.”
ii) “Rāvaṇa woke up Kumbhakarṇa.”
Use the verbal root √बुध् (बुधँ अवगमने ४. ६८) with the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to wake up.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-105 दीर्घाज्जसि च been used in the verses?

2. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in the verses?

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