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वृष्णिपार्थानाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form वृष्णिपार्थानाम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 1.16.14.

तत्र तत्रोपशृण्वानः स्वपूर्वेषां महात्मनाम् । प्रगीयमानं च यशः कृष्णमाहात्म्यसूचकम् ।। १-१६-१३ ।।
आत्मानं च परित्रातमश्वत्थाम्नोऽस्त्रतेजसः । स्नेहं च वृष्णिपार्थानां तेषां भक्तिं च केशवे ।। १-१६-१४ ।।
तेभ्यः परमसंतुष्टः प्रीत्युज्जृम्भितलोचनः । महाधनानि वासांसि ददौ हारान्महामनाः ।। १-१६-१५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रगीयमानं यशः । यशआदीनि शृण्वंस्तेभ्यो ददाविति तृतीयेनान्वयः ।। १३ – १६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Everywhere he heard the people sing the praises of his high-souled forbears (the Pāṇḍavas), revealing at the same time the glory of Śrī Kṛṣṇa (13). He also heard the story of his own deliverance (at the hands of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) from the fire of the missile discharged by Aśwatthāmā (the son of Droṇa), as well as of the cordial relations existing between the Vṛṣṇis (the Yādavas) and the sons of Pṛthā (Kuntī) and of the latters’ devotion to Lord Keśava (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) (14). Highly pleased with them (those who sang these stories) the noble-minded emperor bestowed on them costly garments and necklaces, his eyes open with joy (15).

(1) वृष्णयश्च पार्थाश्च = वृष्णिपार्था: – Vṛṣṇis (the Yādavas) and the sons of Pṛthā (Kuntī)

(2) वृष्णि जस् + पार्थ जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) वृष्णि जस् + पार्थ जस् । ‘वृष्णि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पार्थ’ does not. Hence ‘वृष्णि जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वृष्णि जस् + पार्थ जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वृष्णि + पार्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वृष्णिपार्थ ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वृष्णिपार्थ’ is masculine since the final member ‘पार्थ’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) वृष्णिपार्थ + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) वृष्णिपार्थ + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’।
As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment ‘नुँट्’ joins at the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(7) वृष्णिपार्थ + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) वृष्णिपार्थानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि (used in step 3) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘अनेकम्’ इति सर्वेषामेव प्रथमानिर्दिष्टत्वेनोपसर्जनत्वाविशेषादनियमप्राप्तावयमारम्भः। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – द्वन्द्व इति किम्? विस्पष्टपटुः। Please explain. Hint: The पदमञ्जरी (which is a commentary on the काशिका) analyses the compound विस्पष्टपटुः as विस्पष्टं पटुरिति विगृह्य ‘सुप्सुपा’ इति समास:।

3. Where does the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः find application in the verses?

4. The seventh case affix in the form केशवे used in the verse is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च because ‘केशव’ has the designation अधिकरणम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम्। आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्यापक: involving pervasion. Which one (of these three) is it here?

5. Why is the form प्रगीयमानम् used in the verses a आर्षप्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There is no difference between (Lord) Viṣṇu and (Lord) Śiva.” Form a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘(Lord) Viṣṇu and (Lord) Śiva’ = ‘हरिश्च हरश्च’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ (in place of the affix ‘णल्’) in the form ददौ?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि (used in step 3) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘अनेकम्’ इति सर्वेषामेव प्रथमानिर्दिष्टत्वेनोपसर्जनत्वाविशेषादनियमप्राप्तावयमारम्भः। Please explain.
    Answer: The term ‘अनेकम्’ (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे into the सूत्रम् 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः) ends in the nominative case. Thus all the members – without distinction – of a द्वन्द्वसमासः get the designation उपसर्जनम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम्। And hence the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in a द्वन्द्वः compound. This ambiguity is resolved by the rules in the section starting from 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि।

    2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – द्वन्द्व इति किम्? विस्पष्टपटुः। Please explain. Hint: The पदमञ्जरी (which is a commentary on the काशिका) analyses the compound विस्पष्टपटुः as विस्पष्टं पटुरिति विगृह्य ‘सुप्सुपा’ इति समास:।
    Answer: As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.
    द्वन्द्व इति किम्? To understand the importance of the condition द्वन्द्वे, consider the compound विस्पष्टपटुः। In this compound the term ‘पटु’ has the घि-सज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि, while the term ‘विस्पष्ट’ does not. But since this compound is of the सुप्सुपा class (and not a द्वन्द्वः), the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – which would have mandated that the term ‘पटु’ be placed in the prior position – does not apply.
    If the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 did not mention the condition द्वन्द्वे, then ’पटु’ would have to take the prior position in this compound which would have been undesirable.

    3. Where does the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः find application in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः finds application in the form अस्त्रतेजसः (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’अस्त्रतेजस्’, पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्)। The used of a fifth case affix is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
    Note: The सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी applies here since ‘अस्त्रतेजस्’ (the fire of the missile) which denotes the cause of fear, gets the designation अपादानम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः – When a verbal root having the meaning of भयम् (fear) or त्राणम् (protection) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the cause of the fear is designated as अपादानम्। The सूत्रम् 1-4-25 applies here because the verbal root √त्रै (त्रैङ् पालने १. ११२०) – which denotes protection – is used in the form परित्रातम्।

    4. The seventh case affix in the form केशवे used in the verse is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च because ‘केशव’ has the designation अधिकरणम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम्। आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्यापक: involving pervasion. Which one (of these three) is it here?
    Answer: The आधारः in the form केशवे (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’केशव’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) is वैषयिकः – involving a subject matter.
    केशवः (Lord Keśava – Śrī Kṛṣṇa) is the subject matter for the locus of the action (devotion – indicated by the word भक्तिम्) performed by the agent वृष्णिपार्थाः।

    5. Why is the form प्रगीयमानम् used in the verses a आर्षप्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?
    Answer: The form प्रगीयमानम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ’प्रगीयमान’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses a आर्षप्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage) because the letter ‘न्’ should have been substituted by the letter ‘ण्’ as per the सूत्रम् 8-4-29 कृत्यचः
    Please see the answer to question 2 in the following comment for the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ’गीयमान’ from the verbal root √गा (गै शब्दे १. १०६५) – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/09/22/यानि-nap/#comment-35113

    प्र + गीयमान । ‘गीयमान’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = प्रगीयमाण । By 8-4-29 कृत्यचः – When immediately following a vowel, the letter ‘न्’ of a कृत् affix gets the letter ‘ण्’ as a replacement, when preceded by a उपसर्गः that has the निमित्तम् (cause – रेफः, letter ‘ष्’) to bring about णत्वम्
    ‘प्रगीयमाण’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    Note: We do find the grammatically correct form प्रगीयमाणम् used in some editions of the भागवतम्।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “There is no difference between (Lord) Viṣṇu and (Lord) Śiva.” Form a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘(Lord) Viṣṇu and (Lord) Śiva’ = ‘हरिश्च हरश्च’।
    Answer: हरिहरयोः भेदः न अस्ति = हरिहरयोर्भेदो नास्ति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ has been used in the form आत्मानम् (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्मन्’, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।)
    आत्मन् + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ’अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा। ’अम्’ gets the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 6-4-8 to apply in the next step.
    = आत्मान् + अम् । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ, the penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix.
    = आत्मानम्।

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ (in place of the affix ‘णल्’) in the form ददौ?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-1-34 आत औ णलः prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ in the form ददौ derived from the verbal root √दा (डुदाञ् दाने ३. १०).

    Please see the following post for the derivation of the form ददौ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/01/01/ददौ-3as-लिँट्

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