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प्रपितामहः mNs

Today we will look at the form प्रपितामहः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.24.36.

इति तस्यां स आधाय गर्भं सूर्यो दिवं गतः । सद्यः कुमारः सञ्जज्ञे द्वितीय इव भास्करः ।। ९-२४-३५ ।।
तं सात्यजन्नदीतोये कृच्छ्राल्लोकस्य बिभ्यती । प्रपितामहस्तामुवाह पाण्डुर्वै सत्यविक्रमः ।। ९-२४-३६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – So saying, the sun-god deposited his seed in her womb and returned to heaven. That very moment a male child – who was another sun as it were, was born of her without any travail. (35) Afraid of the world (however), she painfully consigned the child to the stream of a river. (Later on) your great grandfather, Pāṇḍu, of genuine valor duly married her (36).

(1) प्रगत: पितामह: = प्रपितामह: – advanced (‘gone ahead’) grandfather = great grandfather

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) प्र + पितामह सुँ । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया – Terms like ‘प्र’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘गत’ (‘gone’/’advanced’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the nominative case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘प्र’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term प्रादय: ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘प्र’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘प्र + पितामह सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) प्र + पितामह । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= प्रपितामह ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः – The gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound. For a प्रादि-समास: (which belongs to the तत्पुरुष: class of compounds) though, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः – The सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः does not apply to the following compounds which instead take their gender to match the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) –
i) a द्विगु-समास: (composed तद्धितार्थे विषये – in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed)
ii) a तत्पुरुष-समास: compound which has either ‘प्राप्त’, ‘आपन्न’ or ‘अलम्’ as its prior member
iii) a प्रादि-समास: composed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
Note: गतिसमासपदं गते: समासो येनेति बहुव्रीहिणा ‘कुगतिप्रादयः’ इति सूत्रपरम्। तच्चान्यत्र फलाभावात् प्रादिपरमेव। The mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to those compounds constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः (which prescribes गति-समासा:)। And since the वार्तिकम् is of no use in the case of those compounds which have ‘कु’ or a ‘गति’ term as the prior member, we have to conclude that the mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to प्रादि-समास: only.

But in the present example this वार्तिकम् is not necessary because the compound ‘प्रपितामह’ is itself a noun. It is not qualifying any other noun. So the gender is the same as the gender of its latter member (‘पितामह’) which is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) प्रपितामह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) प्रपितामह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) प्रपितामह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया (used in step 2) been used in verses 15-19 of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सौनाग-वार्तिकानि the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – अव्यवस्थया समासप्रसक्तौ व्यवस्थार्थं वचनानि। Please explain.

3. Where has the कृत् affix ‘ट’ been used in the verses?

4. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application?

5. Can you spot a गति-समास: in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sage Vyāsa was the great grandson of the sage Vasiṣṭha.”

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form सञ्जज्ञे derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उवाह?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया (used in step 2) been used in verses 15-19 of Chapter Four of the गीता?
    Answer: The सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया has been used in the form विकर्मण: (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विकर्मन्’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) in the following verse –

    कर्मणो ह्यपि बोद्धव्यं बोद्धव्यं च विकर्मणः |
    अकर्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः || 4-17||

    विरुद्धं कर्म = विकर्म – contrary/prohibited action

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विकर्मन्’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रपितामह’ as shown in the post.

    2. Commenting on the सौनाग-वार्तिकानि the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – अव्यवस्थया समासप्रसक्तौ व्यवस्थार्थं वचनानि। Please explain.
    Answer: The purpose of the सौनाग-वार्तिकानि is the regulation (व्यवस्थार्थम्) of the prescription of प्रादि-समासा:, because otherwise there would be disorder (अव्यवस्था) in the formation of such compounds leading to undesirable forms.

    3. Where has the कृत् affix ‘ट’ been used in the verses?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘ट’ has been used to derive the form भास्करः (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भास्कर’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see the following post for derivation of the form भास्करः – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/23/भास्करः-mns

    4. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च finds application in the form गतः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७).

    The meaning of the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च is as follows – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix ‘क्त’ may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
    (i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
    (ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
    (iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।

    Please see answer to question 1 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गत’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/12/08/सुभिक्षम्-nns/#comment-35138

    5. Can you spot a गति-समास: in the verses?
    Answer: The form आधाय is a गति-समास: – derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’।

    The derivation is as follows –
    धा + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – सूर्यः) is गतः (‘returned.’)

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    आङ् + धा + क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
    Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।
    Note: The designation ‘गति’ is prescribed in the section from 1-4-60 गतिश्च down to 1-4-79 जीविकोपनिषदावौपम्ये।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘आङ्’ (which has the designation गति: here) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case.
    Hence the term ‘आङ्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    = आङ् + धा + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)
    = आ + धा + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: As per 6-4-69 न ल्यपि – The letter ‘आ’ of the verbal roots listed in 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि does not get the letter ‘ई’ as a replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ल्यप्’। 6-4-69 prevents 6-4-66 from applying here.
    = आधाय ।
    ‘आधाय’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।

    आधाय + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = आधाय । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “The sage Vyāsa was the great grandson of the sage Vasiṣṭha.”
    Answer: ऋषिः व्यासः ऋषेः वसिष्ठस्य प्रपौत्रः बभूव = ऋषिर्व्यास ऋषेर्वसिष्ठस्य प्रपौत्रो बभूव।

    Easy questions:
    1. From which verbal root is the form सञ्जज्ञे derived?
    Answer: The form सञ्जज्ञे is derived from the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४).

    Please see answer to question 2 in the following comment for the derivation of the form जज्ञे – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/23/विवक्षोः-mgs/#comment-4075

    ‘सम्’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    सम् + जज्ञे = सं + जज्ञे । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।
    = सञ्जज्ञे/संजज्ञे । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य।

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उवाह?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उवाह – derived from the verbal root √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९).

    The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    वह् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्।
    = वह् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वह् + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = वह् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः।
    = वह् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वह् वह् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य।
    Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, we apply 6-1-8 before applying 7-2-116.
    = व वह् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः।
    = उ अ वह् + अ । By 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम्, when a लिँट् affix follows, सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45 इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम्) is done in the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) of the verbal roots (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८ etc.) referred to in 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति as well as in that of the verbal roots (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१ etc.) referred to in 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च।
    = उ वह् + अ । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च।
    = उवाह । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः।

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