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चतुर्भुजः mNs

Today we will look at the form चतुर्भुजः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.7.52.

निशम्य भीमगदितं द्रौपद्याश्च चतुर्भुजः । आलोक्य वदनं सख्युरिदमाह हसन्निव ।। १-७-५२ ।।
श्रीभगवानुवाच
ब्रह्मबन्धुर्न हन्तव्य आततायी वधार्हणः । मयैवोभयमाम्नातं परिपाह्यनुशासनम् ।। १-७-५३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
चतुर्भुजोक्तेरयं भावः – भीमे तं हन्तुं प्रवृत्ते द्रौपद्यां च सहसा तन्निवारणे प्रवृत्तायामुभयोः संवरणायाविष्कृतचतुर्भुज इति । संदिहानस्य सख्युरर्जुनस्य ।। ५२ ।। वधार्हणो वधार्हः । मयैव शास्त्रकृता ‘ब्राह्मणो न हन्तव्यः’ तथा ‘आततायिनमायान्तमपि वेदान्तपारगम् ।। जिघांसन्तं जिघांसीयान्न तेन ब्रह्महा भवेत् ।।’ इति च वदता । तदुभयमप्यनुशासनं परिपालय ।। ५३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Hearing the words of Bhīma as well as of Draupadī, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa (who was distinguished by His four arms) looked into the face of his friend (Arjuna) and uttered the following words, as though smiling : (52) Śrī Kṛṣṇa said: Even a fallen Brāhmaṇa ought not to be slain and a ruffian surely deserves to be killed. Both these precepts have been taught by Me in the scriptures. Therefore, carry out both these commands of Mine (53).

(1) चत्वारो भुजा यस्य स: = चतुर्भुजः (श्रीकृष्णः) – He (Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa) who has four arms.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) चतुर् जस् + भुज जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: The word बहुव्रीहि: itself is an example of a बहुव्रीहि: compound. It is analyzed as बहवो व्रीहयो यस्य स: – A person who has (owns) a lot of rice.
Note: When forming अव्ययीभाव: and तत्पुरुष: compounds only two terms may be combined at one time, while बहुव्रीहि: compounds may be formed by combining two or more terms simultaneously. For example – पञ्च गावो धनं यस्य = पञ्चगवधन: – One whose wealth is five cows.

See question 2.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ चतुर् जस्’ as well as ‘भुज जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
The adjective ‘चतुर् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘चतुर् जस् + भुज जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) चतुर्भुज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example श्रीकृष्णः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चतुर्भुज’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) चतुर्भुज + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) चतुर्भुज + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) चतुर्भुज: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अप्रथमाविभक्त्यर्थे बहुव्रीहिरिति समानाधिकरणानामिति च फलितम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Brahmā (who has four faces) granted many boons to Hiraṇyakaśipu.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has four faces’ = चत्वारि मुखानि यस्य स:।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even the gods were afraid of Rāvaṇa (who has ten faces.)” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has ten faces’ = दशाननानि यस्य स:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ in the form परिपाहि?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य been used in the verses?

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