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Daily Archives: October 19, 2015

अपार्थम् nAs

Today we will look at the form अपार्थम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.1.10.

राजोवाच
दृष्टश्रुताभ्यां यत्पापं जानन्नप्यात्मनोऽहितम् । करोति भूयो विवशः प्रायश्चित्तमथो कथम् ।। ६-१-९ ।।
क्वचिन्निवर्ततेऽभद्रात्क्वचिच्चरति तत्पुनः । प्रायश्चित्तमथोऽपार्थं मन्ये कुञ्जरशौचवत् ।। ६-१-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अत्र चोदयति द्वाभ्याम् । दृष्टं राजदण्डादि । श्रुतं नरकपातादि । ताभ्यामात्मनः पापमहितं जानन्नपि भूयः प्रायश्चित्तानन्तरं करोतिअथो अतः कारणाद्द्वादशाब्दादि कथं प्रायश्चित्तम् । तेन समूलस्य दोषस्यानिवृत्तेः । निवृत्तौ वा पुनश्च पापप्ररोहायोगादिति भावः ।। ९ ।। किंच क्वचित्कदाचिदभद्रात्पापान्निवर्ततेक्वचित्तदेव पुनराचरति । यथा कुञ्जरः स्नातोऽपि रजोभिरात्मानं मलिनी करोति तथा पापस्य पुनर्दुर्निवारत्वेन नरकपातस्यावश्यंभावित्वात्प्रायश्चित्तं व्यर्थमिति मन्ये ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – The king said: Since a man, though knowing a sin to be hurtful to his self on the testimony of what is actually seen and heard of by him, repeats it (even after atoning for it) having lost control (over his self), how could there be (any) atonement (for his sins) under the circumstances (so long as the sinful propensity is there)? (9) Now he is absolved from a sin and now he does it again. Such being the case, I account (all) atonement fruitless like the bath of an elephant (which throws dust on its body immediately after it has washed itself) (10).

(1) अपगतमर्थात् (अपगतम् अर्थात्) = अपार्थम् – fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अप + अर्थ ङसिँ । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या – Terms like ‘निर्’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘क्रान्‍त’ (‘departed’/’gone past’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the ablative case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ अप’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term निरादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘अप’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अप + अर्थ ङसिँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अप + अर्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अपार्थ । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः – The gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound. For a प्रादि-समास: (which belongs to the तत्पुरुष: class of compounds) though, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः – The सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः does not apply to the following compounds which instead take their gender to match the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) –
i) a द्विगु-समास: (composed तद्धितार्थे विषये – in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed)
ii) a तत्पुरुष-समास: compound which has either ‘प्राप्त’, ‘आपन्न’ or ‘अलम्’ as its prior member
iii) a प्रादि-समास: composed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
Note: गतिसमासपदं गते: समासो येनेति बहुव्रीहिणा ‘कुगतिप्रादयः’ इति सूत्रपरम्। तच्चान्यत्र फलाभावात् प्रादिपरमेव। The mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to those compounds constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः (which prescribes गति-समासा:)। And since the वार्तिकम् is of no use in the case of those compounds which have ‘कु’ or a ‘गति’ term as the prior member, we have to conclude that the mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to प्रादि-समास: only.
In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपार्थ’ is neuter since the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) is ‘प्रायश्चित्त’ which is neuter.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) अपार्थ + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) अपार्थ + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(8) अपार्थम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In verses 18-22 of Chapter Five of the गीता can you spot a compound constructed using the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या (used in step 2)?

2. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in the verses?

3. Which two compounds used in the verses are नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compounds?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form रजोभिः used in the commentary?

5. Can you spot a प्रादि-समास: in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The life of one who has no devotion is fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘उ’ in the form करोति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् been used in the verses?

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