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Daily Archives: October 12, 2015

उपेन्द्रम् mAs

Today we will look at the form उपेन्द्रम्  mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.23.23.

वेदानां सर्वदेवानां धर्मस्य यशसः श्रियः । मङ्गलानां व्रतानां च कल्पं स्वर्गापवर्गयोः ।। ८-२३-२२ ।।
उपेन्द्रं कल्पयांचक्रे पतिं सर्वविभूतये । तदा सर्वाणि भूतानि भृशं मुमुदिरे नृप ।। ८-२३-२३ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Nay,) for the prosperity of all he further made Lord Vāmana (the younger Brother of Indra), the custodian of the Vedas as well as of all the gods, of righteousness, wealth and fame, of (all) blessings and sacred vows, nay, of heaven and final beatitude (too), capable as He was to protect them (all). On that occasion all created beings rejoiced much, O protector of human beings! (22-23)

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ननु लोकादीनां पतिरिन्द्रोऽस्त्येव, सत्यम्, तथापि वेदादीनां कल्पं पालने दक्षं वामनमुपेन्द्रं कल्पयांचक्रे ।। २२ ।। २३ ।।

(1) उपगत इन्द्रम् = उपेन्द्र: – ‘gone to’ or ‘approached’ Indra, hence it means ‘younger brother’ of Indra

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) उप + इन्द्र अम् । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया – Terms like ‘अति’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘क्रान्त’ (‘surpassed’/’transgressed’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the accusative case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The प्रादि-गणः is enumerated as follows – प्र । परा । अप । सम् । अनु । अव । निस् । निर् । दुस् । दुर् । वि । आङ् । नि । अधि । अपि । अति । सु । उद् । अभि । प्रति । परि । उप
The term ‘आदि’ used in these सौनाग-वार्तिकानि (प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया, अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया etc.) denotes the sense of प्रकारः (‘similitude’) and not ‘starting with.’ Hence, अत्यादयः does not stand for ‘अति । सु । उद् । अभि । प्रति । परि । उप ।’ but includes any terms (along with ‘अति’) in the प्रादि-गणः as appropriate.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘उप’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term अत्यादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘उप’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘उप + इन्द्र अम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) उप + इन्द्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) उपेन्द्र । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः – The gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound. For a प्रादि-समास: (which belongs to the तत्पुरुष: class of compounds) though, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः – The सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः does not apply to the following compounds which instead take their gender to match the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) –
i) a द्विगु-समास: (composed तद्धितार्थे विषये – in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed)
ii) a तत्पुरुष-समास: compound which has either ‘प्राप्त’, ‘आपन्न’ or ‘अलम्’ as its prior member
iii) a प्रादि-समास: composed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
Note: गतिसमासपदं गते: समासो येनेति बहुव्रीहिणा ‘कुगतिप्रादयः’ इति सूत्रपरम्। तच्चान्यत्र फलाभावात् प्रादिपरमेव। The mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to those compounds constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः (which prescribes गति-समासा:)। And since the वार्तिकम् is of no use in the case of those compounds which have ‘कु’ or a ‘गति’ term as the prior member, we have to conclude that the mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to प्रादि-समास: only.

In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उपेन्द्र’ is masculine since the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) is ‘वामन’ which is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) उपेन्द्र + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) उपेन्द्रम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In verses 15-20 of Chapter Seven of the गीता can you spot a compound composed using the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the formation of the compound ‘सर्वदेव’ (used in the form सर्वदेवानाम् (षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?

3. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix क्विँप् in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पालन’ (used in the form पालने (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“With super-human effort, Śrī Hanumān reached Laṅkā.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उद्यम’ for ‘effort.’ Form a प्रादि-समास: for ‘super-human’ = अतिक्रान्तो मानुषम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इरे’ in the form ‘मुमुदिरे’?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the commentary?

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