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दत्तराज्यः mNs

Today we will look at the form दत्तराज्यः  mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.68.2.

यदसौ मातुलकुले दत्तराज्यः परं सुखी । भरतो वसति भ्रात्रा शत्रुघ्नेन मुदान्वितः ।। २-६८-२ ।।
तच्छीघ्रं जवना दूता गच्छन्तु त्वरितं हयैः । आनेतुं भ्रातरौ वीरौ किं समीक्षामहे वयम् ।। २-६८-३ ।।
गच्छन्त्विति ततः सर्वे वसिष्ठं वाक्यमब्रुवन् । तेषां तद् वचनं श्रुत्वा वसिष्ठो वाक्यमब्रवीत् ।। २-६८-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – ‘Since the celebrated Bharata, on whom kingship has been bestowed (by the emperor urged by Kaikeyī), is leading a most happy and joyous life at his maternal uncle’s with his (younger) brother Śatrughna; therefore let swift messengers proceed quickly on horses to bring the two gallant brothers. What (else) can we thoughtfully consider?’ (2-3) Then all submitted to Vasiṣṭha as follows :- ‘Let the messengers depart.’ Hearing that reply of the counsellors, Vasiṣṭha (again) spoke as follows :- (4)

(1) दत्तं राज्यं यस्मै स: = दत्तराज्यः (भरतः) – He (Bharata) on to whom kingship has been bestowed.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) दत्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दत्त सुँ’ as well as ‘राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘दत्त सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘दत्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दत्तराज्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example भरत: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दत्तराज्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) दत्तराज्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) दत्तराज्य + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) दत्तराज्य: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in the first two verses of Chapter Ten of the गीता?

2. From which verbal root is the participle ‘दत्त’ (used as part of the compound दत्तराज्य:) derived?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the forms भ्रात्रा शत्रुघ्नेन used in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ been used in the verses?

5. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Kaikeyī – on to whom two boons were bestowed – exiled Śrī Rāma for fourteen years.” Use a causative form of the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to exile.’ Construct a (feminine) बहुव्रीहि-समास: for ‘one on to whom two boons were bestowed’ = दत्तौ वरौ यस्यै सा। Construct a शाकपार्थिवादि-समास: for ‘fourteen’ = ‘ten plus four’ = चतुरधिकानि दश।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘ईट्’ in the form अब्रवीत्?

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